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JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What are the main aims of economic development - JC History Essay Notes

What are the main aims of economic development?

Nicholas Tarling’s three aims
According to the distinguished historians, Nicholas Tarling and Norman Owen, who published The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, there are three aims of economic development: growth, equity and nationalism. We will be examining the significance of these aims individually to understand why there is a high degree of government intervention in the post-independence Southeast Asian states.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

Aim #1: Economic Growth
One of the most common aims of economic development involves economic growth, which is typically measured in the monetized value of the goods and services produced within a country, seen in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

To assess the economic performance of a country, it is important to examine the ability of governments to achieve short-term and long-term economic growth.

Also, another relevant aspect is the percentage share of GDP contributed by the three sectors: agriculture, industry and finance. As a country advances, a large proportion of growth is derived from the secondary and tertiary sectors (industry and finance).

Aim #2: Economic Equity
The second aim involves the reduction of income gap between the rich and the poor. In some Southeast Asian states, leaders advocate the equality of opportunity, which can be measured by the percentage of population that suffering from poverty.

As such, their policies are extensively focused on a more equitable distribution of resources. For example, governments introduce legislation to facilitate land reforms for state acquisition and re-distribution to rural households.

Aim #3: Economic Nationalism
The third aim refers to the indigenization of wealth and production to reduce foreign ownership of domestic sectors of economy. Following the process of decolonization, many Southeast Asian states sought to reduce foreign influence in their economic development.

This aim is usually achieved by implementing policies of nationalization. The governments impose strict controls to limit or eradicate foreign ownership. At same time, state-owned enterprises are formed to replace these foreign companies. For example, in Indonesia, the Dutch assets in petroleum were nationalized, thus forming the Permina, known as the state-owned oil company. Later, it was renamed as Pertamina.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– The pursuit of economic growth is the most important aim that Southeast Asian governments should prioritize on after independence. Discuss. [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have examined the three aims of economic development, you should look for practice questions to apply your knowledge. You can also join our JC History Tuition as we provide summary notes and practice questions (with reference answers) to demonstrate the applicability of knowledge for examinations.

Furthermore, we conduct other related JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to sign up now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Myanmar develop its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Myanmar develop its economy?

Overall Economic Assessment of Myanmar
After Myanmar attained independence on 4 January 1948, the government pursued economic development, which is strongly guided by nationalistic and socialist influences. In view of the political challenges, there was strong government intervention. Over time, the military took a prominent role in maintaining political stability, while guiding the development of the economy. By the 1980s, Myanmar engaged in economic liberalization, encouraging the inflow of private investment.

Examine how the Chinese ‘Belt Road Initiative’ (BRI) will transform Myanmar’s economy.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1948 to 1962: U Nu’s Democratic Governance
Before Myanmar attained independence, the British colonial powers transformed its economy by focusing in agricultural production. By 1930s, nearly two-thirds of the labour force were involved in the agrarian sector. Following World War II, the devastation caused by war left many infrastructure in ruins.

Therefore, the government embarked in the Pyidawtha Plan, which is a eight-year economic plan that set higher targets for growth. The purpose was to rebuild the public infrastructure for economic recovery. Due to the high degree of foreign ownership in the economic sectors, nationalisation became one of the foremost approaches. For instance, the Land Nationalisation Act (1948) was passed to facilitate the consolidation and re-distribution of land for agricultural development.

1962 to 1988: Ne Win’s Burmese Way to Socialism
However, the country was faced with political instability due to internal divisions. Military intervention became necessary to restore stability, thus paving the way for the rise of Ne Win’s leadership. Ne Win’s military government centralised its economic development based on the ideology of ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’, which placed great emphasis on state control across economic sectors.

For example, the Burma Oil Company used to be a joint venture during U Nu’s time. In 1963, this company was nationalised. Likewise, in the banking sector, the government maintained a tight control to ensure that all domestic capital was in the hands of the state. As for the agricultural sector, the Tenancy Law (1965) was passed, which facilitated land redistribution.

1988 to 1997: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Following the resurgence of democratisation in the 1980s, the government engaged in economic liberalisation. The financial sector benefited from this increased openness, as seen by the Foreign Investment Law (1988). This law allowed foreign companies to invest in local ventures. Furthermore, the Financial Institutions Law (1992) was passed to allow the establishment of private commercial banks.

As a result of economic liberalisation, Myanmar’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased by 7.3% per year in the period of 1992 to 1997. Additionally, financial openness contributed to greater inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI), which approximated at US$2.8 billion at one point in time.

In summary, the strong government intervention was a common feature in Myanmar throughout the time period since independence to 1997.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question to understand this country-specific case study:
– Assess the role of the government in shaping the economic development of Myanmar after independence. [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have considered the strategies employed by the government in guiding economic development of Myanmar, it is important to apply this knowledge by writing A Level History essays. Alternatively, you can sign up for our JC History Tuition. We provide summary notes, essay outlines and source-based case study question answers for effective revision.

Furthermore, we conduct other related JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to sign up now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Philippines grow its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Philippines grow its economy?

About the Philippine economy
After the attainment of independence, the Philippines became one of the leading Southeast Asian economies that was comparable to neighbouring countries, like Malaysia and Singapore. The 1970s became the turning point due to internal economic mismanagement, thus contributing to political turmoil that ended with a switch to the new administration by the early 1990s.

Find out more about the modern economic development of the Philippines after independence.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1946 to 1965: Post-independent Philippines
During the early stages of independence, Philippines was heavily reliant on primary exports, due to its trade links with USA. This can be explained by the pre-indpendence policies, like the Payne Aldrich Tariff Act (1909) that granted US access to some Philippine goods.

One significant approach involved economic indigenization via the establishment of the National Development Company, which facilitated the formation of state agencies to control key sectors of the economy. For example, the Philippine Sugar Institute was formed in 1951.

The second strategy involved agricultural development. Given the heavy reliance on primary exports for growth, the government engaged in major land reforms, as seen by the Rice Share Tenancy Act (1946). The purpose was for resource consolidation and re-distribution.

1965 to 1986: The ‘era of Marcos’
Under the leadership of Ferdinand Marcos, the government continued its extensive state intervention to guide the development of the Philippine economy.

The government undergone transition for import-substitution industrialization (ISI) to export-oriented industrialization (EOI), as exemplified by policies that encouraged the inflow of foreign investment. For example, the Board of Investment was formed. This public entity then implemented the Investment Incentives Act (1967) to facilitate the influx of foreign investment. Additionally, the Export Incentives Act (1970) was introduced to provide incentives for the production of manufactured exports.

Following the imposition of martial law in 1972, the government raised its level of intervention in the economy. There was greater state ownership in various sectors, as seen by organizations like the Philippine Sugar Commission and the Asia Brewery.

Around the 1960s to 1970s, Marcos also capitalized on the Green Revolution to enhance the productivity of agriculture. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was set up to allow the development of high-yielding and disease-resistant rice varieties. In addition, the ‘Masagana 99’ (Rice Production Programme) was introduced to grant rice farmers access to fertilizer subsidies and credit. Hence, the farmers benefited from state support, as seen by the achievement of self-sufficiency in rice production by 1972.

1986 to 1997: Post-Marcos Era
Following the economic instability and political unrest that caused the transition to a new administration, the Philippine government sought to resolve these past setbacks urgently.

One such obstacle was the large external debt due to Marco’s extensive borrowing. Austerity measures were introduced to reduce deficits. Also, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law was passed in 1988 to facilitate land reforms, thereby transferring ownership to farmers.

Besides, there was greater privatization to reduce excessive state ownership, which was recognized as an inefficient approach for economic development. For example, monopolies in industries like telecommunications and power generation were dismantled.

Over time, the post-Marco period was met with greater success due to the restoration of economic stability. Privatization was effective in providing the country with its much-needed revenue for recovery. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in the 1990s averaged at 3.3%.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question to understand this country-specific case study:
– To what extent was state involvement beneficial to the economic development of the Philippines after independence? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have examined the strategies and outcomes of the Philippine economy, we encourage you to attempt essay questions to review your knowledge thoroughly. An alternative approach is to join our JC History Tuition. We provide useful summary notes and essay outlines to enhance your knowledge application skills.

Furthermore, we conduct other related JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuitionclasses, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to sign up now and get discounts!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Indonesia build its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Indonesia build its economy?

Overall economic trend of Indonesia
From independence to 1970s, the Indonesian government was pre-occupied with its political development. Also, there was much emphasis on agriculture, given its substantial natural endowments. Although the country encountered several setbacks, astute government intervention resulted in the rapid economic growth from 1970s to 1980s due to the continued emphasis on industrialization. Nevertheless, given its large geographical size, the Indonesian economy has a massive potential for economic growth.

Find out more about the critical factors that explain the economic successes of modern Indonesia.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1957 to 1965: ‘Guided Democracy’ [Soekarno]
Following the harsh and disruptive colonial rule and World War Two, the Indonesian government, under Soekarno’s leadership, pursuit economic nationalism to restore state control of key economic sectors. In 1957, the seizure of foreign-owned assets was carried out for state consolidation and re-allocation. For instance, the ‘Peraturan Presiden Nomor 10 tahun 1959‘ (Government Regulation 10) disallowed foreigners from conducting businesses in specific areas. At the same time, the regulation forced the transfer of business ownership to local citizens.

In addition, under the guidance of the Bappenas [Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional] (National Planning Council), the Indonesian government focused on national development. The plan involved an estimated spending of $30 billion rupiah on an annual basis. Land reform was also conducted to nurture the development of the agricultural sector, as observed by the Basic Agrarian Law (Peraturan Dasar Pokok-Pokok Agraria).

1965 to 1997: ‘New Order’ [Suharto]
After the sudden political transition, Suharto led a major economic transformation that resulted in the rapid modernisation of Indonesia. Together with his team of Western-educated technocrats, also known as the ‘Berkeley Mafia‘, Suharto introduced liberal economic policies.

The BULOG [Badan Urusan Logistik] (National Logistics Body) was established in 1966 for price stabilization in the agriculture sector. To protect the interests of the locals, the government introduce price control measures to reduce inflationary pressures for crops, such as rice.

At the same time, the BIMAS (Mass Guidance Programme) was implemented in 1969 to nurture the rice industry through the provision of access to foreign technology. Also, Suharto capitalized on the Green Revolution by providing disease-resistant and high-yielding varieties.

As a result, Indonesia flourished tremendously from its successful efforts in raising rice production. In fact, agriculture contributed to nearly one-third of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Another critical aspect of Indonesia’s rapid economic growth can be traced to its emphasis on export-oriented industrialization (EOI). It began with the provision of incentives to attract foreign investment, such as the New Investment Law of 1967, which guaranteed no corporate tax for specific projects.

Additionally, financial liberalization was pursued in the 1980s. For example, the government allowed the deregulation of money markets, as evidenced by the increase in number of private local banks from 63 in 1988 to 165 in 1995. By 1990, the privatization of the Jakarta Stock Exchange promoted investment activities. These changes can be explained by the easing of licensing regulations for foreign banks.

Hence, we can observe that the 1980s and 1990s were a notable period in which the government played a secondary role, thus allowing the private sectors to guide the economic development of Indonesia.

Furthermore, the government tapped on the economic expertise and domestic capital of its Chinese-dominated private businesses to flourish the economy. By 1996, a group of domestic conglomerates became the key pillar of the economy, such as the Salim Group (e.g. Indomie!) and Astra Group.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand this country-specific case study:
– How important was the government in shaping the economic development on Indonesia after independence? [to be discussed in class]

After analyzing this case study, review your knowledge comprehension by answering JC History essay questions. Alternatively, you can sign up for our JC History Tuition and find out how you can organise your answers effectively.

On a similar note, we encourage you to join other JC tuition programmes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuitionclasses, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to find out more!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Thailand advance its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Thailand advance its economy?

Understanding the ‘Land of Smiles’
To comprehend the vast landscape of Thailand’s economic development, it is important to organise the assessment by time periods, lasting from 1938 to 1997. In general, the economic development was largely guided by strong government intervention. Under the guidance of the government, different sectors were being developed, starting with agriculture, followed by industry and tertiary aspects (like tourism).

Find out how Thailand’s economy has developed over the years, as observed by the World Bank

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1938 to 1957: Development of domestic capabilities
One of the central government policies, while under Phibun’s rule, was nationalization. Before the Siamese revolution of 1932, the economy was heavily guided by foreign investments from Western colonial powers, like the British. For instance, the government nationalized the British-American Tobacco Company. The Tobacco Act also restricted foreign participation in critical sectors. Over time, such policies allowed the locals to restore economic control in these areas.

In addition, the government formed the National Economic Development Corporation (NEDCOL) in 1954 to promote state-led industrialization. The Industrial Promotion Act provided tax exemption to encourage the participation of local manufacturers. As such, the protection of domestic firms from foreign competition gave them time to grow, thus contributing to economic growth.

1957 to 1980: Outward Expansion and Industrialization
Although Phibun was successful in achieving economic nationalism to undergo resource consolidation, the strong reliance on primary exports limited the extent of growth. Hence, the subsequent political leaders in this time period explored other options, particularly export-led industrialization.

The NEDCOL was reformed into the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) in 1950. The government formulated several plans to enhance the growth of Thailand. One notable target was the promotion of foreign investment. As such, the government established the Board of Investment (BOI) in 1959. Then, the Promotion of Investment Act was passed to provide various incentives for foreign investors to finance the industrialization process. For example, tax exemptions were granted to firms that imported raw materials for production.

Additionally, the government tapped on the favourable international climate, seen in terms of the Green Revolution (mid-1960s), to enhance the growth of the agriculture sector. The government introduced high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties (IR-8) to raise the output effectively. More importantly, diversification of crops helped to expand the sources of growth. For example, the farmers grew not only rice, but also rubber and maize.

Therefore, these policies have benefited the economy. The inflow of foreign investment was critical in financing the local projects, thus contributing to the development of infrastructure. Also, diversification proved to be an astute decision as the country grew as a result of multiple sectors.

1980 to 1997: Financial Liberalization and Tourism
Following the Crisis Decades, which saw a slight dip in the growth by the mid-1980s, the Thai government pursued export-led growth to sustain the economic development. To achieve this, there was strong emphasis on financial liberalization to attract the essential foreign investment and propel growth.

One of the most significant policies involved the establishment of the Bangkok International Banking Facility (BIBF), which provided tax incentives to numerous banks. As such, this enhanced credit access for exporters.

Besides, from the late 1980s to 1997, the Thai government nurtured the growth of the tourism sector through the support from private entities. The private firms were given more control in the provision of tourist-related services. As a result, the economy benefited from a surge in inflow of foreign currencies.

Nevertheless, it is important to consider the drawbacks of financial liberalization as it left Thailand vulnerable to speculative attacks in the 1990s, which culminated in the disastrous Asian Financial Crisis of 1997.

Concluding remarks
In retrospect, the Thai government played a crucial role in contributing to the growth of various sectors, starting with agriculture. Over time, the government also provided opportunities for the private businesses to play a larger role by the 1980s and 1990s.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand this country-specific case study:
– ‘Industrialization was the most crucial feature that explained the growth of the Thai economy.’ Discuss. [to be discussed in class]

After examining this country-specific case study, it is important for you to apply this knowledge to essay questions. Join our JC History Tuition as we teach you to form logical and well-analyzed arguments effectively. Also, we provide useful summary notes and outlines to raise the productivity of revision sessions.

Furthermore, you can join other JC tuition classes, like GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition to get ready for the A Level examinations. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Contact us at 9689 0510 to learn more!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Singapore achieve rapid economic growth - JC History Essay Notes

How did Singapore achieve rapid economic growth?

Singapore: An Asian Tiger
Ever since Singapore achieved independence in August 1965, the government embarked on an ambitious goal of transforming the young nation into a bustling, modern country that has become the role model for others. From independence to 1997, Singapore has been recognised as one of the front runners in Southeast Asia. Today, Singapore is known for many things, including financial and tourism activities.

Examine the reasons for Singapore’s economic success.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1959 to 1965: Merger & Separation – Singapore’s path to independence
Before Singapore began its rapid economic transformation, the British colonial rule played a crucial role in providing the infrastructure and systems to commence this phenomenal change. In particular, the British capitalized in the strategic location of Singapore in the Southeast Asia to develop it for entrepôt trade.

Additionally, migrants from other parts of Asia began to set foot in the ‘Little Red Dot’, thereby providing labour for manufacturing and services. However, the devastation of the World War Two can be observed, such as the destruction of public infrastructure.

On 5 October 1960, Albert Winsemius was invited by the United Nations Development Programme team to review the country’s ability to carry out industrialisation. Winsemius concluded in the report that high-tech industrialiastion was indeed important, as well as the promotion of foreign investment. As such, the government developed the Jurong Industrial Estate, marking the first step towards industrialization.

1965 to 1985: An outward-oriented approach
Following the sudden declaration of Separation, Singapore had to contend with its own small market, which lacked natural resources that other neighbouring countries possessed. Furthermore, the British declared its intent to withdraw by 1971, which meant that Singapore would have lost a major source of employment and economic growth.

In contrast to other Southeast Asian economies, Singapore began its export-oriented industrialisation (EOI) strategies much earlier. The purpose of EOI was to address the above-mentioned challenges, such as the reliance on trade and foreign investment to propel growth. For example, policy incentives were introduced, like the Economic Expansion Incentives Act (1967) that lowered taxation for specific industries.

Additionally, the government tapped on its only available resource – labour – to enhance its international competitiveness. Vocational training institutes were established to equip its citizens with the skills and knowledge to support the multinational corporations (MNCs). On 1 April 1979, the Vocational and Industrial Training Board (VITB) was formed to facilitate the training of workers in the ‘commercial, industrial and service sectors’.

The government’s efforts had paid off, as seen by the rapid economic growth and falling unemployment rates. EOI and the attraction of foreign investment have led to the influx of foreign companies, which contributed to job creation and higher industrial output.

1985 to 1997: Adaptation to changing economic conditions
However, there were setbacks that limited the extent of Singapore’s economic success. Notably, the Crisis Decades in the 1970s, led to an economic recession in 1985. By opening up the nation to trade, it became vulnerable to external shocks.

Nevertheless, effective adaptation has ensured that the Singapore economy remained resilient in the face of such challenges. For example, Singapore focused on a productivity-driven growth through the’wage shock therapy‘ from 1979 to 1981. The 1985 recession prompted the government to reduce Central Provident Fund (CPF) contribution rates to keep cost of production low. This response was critical as it helped to maintain employment at low and stable levels.

Finally, economic restructuring was carried out, in response to the Strategic Economy Plan (1991) by the Economic Planning Committee. Its purpose was to maintain the country’s international competitiveness through economic diversification. Therefore, heavy investment was made to develop the financial and tourism sectors.

Concluding remarks
In summary, the Singapore government’s consistent policymaking and responses to economic challenges have played a major role in realising the aims set by the ‘founding fathers’ of the young nation. As of 2017, Singapore’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is estimated at US$329.91 billion, demonstrating their successful efforts.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand this country-specific case study:
– How far do you agree that the promotion of foreign investment was the most important factor in explaining the economic transformation of Singapore after independence? [to be discussed in class]

In view of the Singapore case study, it is imperative that you apply your knowledge to practice questions. Sign up for the JC History Tuition and learn how to organise your answers and provide well-analysed arguments to ace the GCE A Level History examinations.

Additionally, you can join other JC tuition classes, like GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition to be ready for the GCE A Level examinations. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to register now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Malaysia develop its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Malaysia develop its economy?

About Malaysia’s economic development
The Malaysian economy underwent a stable transition from colonial rule to independence. It started out as an export economy that began to modernise via industrialization and agricultural reforms. The introduction of the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1970 was a major turning point as the government took on an active role that led to successful economic development.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1957 to 1969: [Alliance] Minimal government intervention
At the early stages of independence, Malaya had an export economy that focused on tin mining and rubber. Also, given its large geographical size, agricultural development was featured as well.

As such, the Malaysian government established the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) in July 1956 to facilitate the resettlement of the rural poor into newly-developed areas. Under the Land Development Act, FELDA contributed to the re-distribution of land to the Malay settlers.

Besides, the government introduced indirect forms of intervention, as seen by the Pioneer Industries Ordinance in 1958, which nurtured the growth of import-substituting industries. As a result, the manufacturing sector grew in the 1960s.

1970 to 1980: [Barisan Nasional] New Economic Policy
Although there were attempts at economic development in the 1950s and 1960s, the progress were arguably inadequate. Therefore, the New Economic Policy (NEP) [Dasar Ekonomi Baru] was introduced by the government to pursue poverty alleviation and socio-economic restructuring.

The government invested substantially on rural development in the 1970s and 1980s, as evidenced by the intensification of the FELDA schemes. In fact, nearly RM15.1 billion was spent on the the development of human and physical capital to improve the well-being of the population.

Furthermore, the Perbadanan Nasional Berhad (PNB) was formed in March 1978 to enhance economic equity. As part of the NEP, the PNB raised the share of ownership for the bumiputera (i.e. indigenous community). For example, the PNB acquired shares of major foreign-owned corporations, such as Sime Darby (1979).

Besides, the Free Trade Zone Act was passed in 1971 to facilitate export-oriented industrialization (EOI). The government aimed to create a conducive business environment to attract foreign investors.

1981 to 1997: National Development Policy
Under the guidance of Mahathir, the Malaysian government engaged in economic diversification to maintain international competitiveness.

In the industrial sector, there was a major transition towards heavy industrialization. In 1980, the Heavy Industries Corporation of Malaysia Berhad (HICOM). In 1990, the Diversified Resources Berhad (DRB) was established. The DRB-HICOM eventually became one of Malaysia’s top corporations that oversaw automotive manufacturing, assembly and distribution. The main purpose of this corporation is to undertake joint ventures with foreign companies, such as Volkswagen and Honda. In fact, the national car, ‘Proton‘, was developed in the process.

More importantly, the New Economic Policy (NEP) was concluded in 1990 and replaced by the National Development Policy (NDP). Mahathir envisioned a fully-industrialized Malaysia through the use of technology, as described by the Action Plan for Industrial Technology Development (1990). This could be traced back to the formation of the National Council for Scientific Research and Development in 1975. As such, the government invested heavily in Research and Development (R&D). For example, the budget for 7th Malaysia Plan (1996-2000) was at RM 3,049 million. Notably, the Multimedia Super Corridor was one of the foremost research projects to encourage the clustering of local and international firms that specialized in ICT (Information and communications technology).

Concluding remarks
In view of these three phases of economic development, it can be observed that there was a significant transformation that led to the attainment of economic growth. From the late 1980s to 1990s, the annual growth rate was estimated at 8.8%. Furthermore, there is a notable shift in focus from agriculture to heavy industrialization and even financial liberalization.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand this country-specific case study:
– How far do you agree that industrialization was the most important factor in explaining the economic transformation of Malayisa from independence to 2000? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have understood the basic considerations of Malaysia’s economic development, we encourage you to attempt essay questions to review your knowledge comprehension. You can consider joining our JC History Tuition as we guide you through a step-by-step process to form well-organized essay structures and generate arguments to support your answers effectively.

Besides, you can sign up for other JC tuition classes, such as GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition to be ready for the GCE A Level examinations. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to register for the JC Tuition programmes.