JC History Tuition Online - What is the Saemaul Undong movement - Asian Tigers Notes

What is the Saemaul Undong Movement?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan]

Examine the impacts of the Saemaul Undong Movement on the rapid modernisation of South Korea in the 1970s and 1980s [Video by Arirang News]

Historical context: Origins of the New Village Movement
The South Korean President Park Chung Hee launched the Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement) in April 1970. It was targeted at the rural parts of nation to advance economic development by combatting endemic rural poverty in the Republic. Although South Korea was already experiencing economic growth in the 1960s, the rural population did not gain much from this trend.

“Our industry,” [Park] solemnly declared, “can develop only when our farmers become well-to-do and the rural communities develop rapidly. Well-to-do farmers generate a great deal of purchasing power, providing one of the basic conditions for industrial development. When industries develop rapidly, the resources thus generated are made available… for reinvestment in the agricultural sector. Viewed in this way, agriculture and industry are inseparable.

An excerpt from “The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea” by Byung-Kook Kim and Ezra F. Vogel.

How does it work?
The Saemaul Undong is defined as a community development movement that promotes three main concepts: self-help, diligence and co-operation. The Park administration mobilised governments to equip farmers with the knowledge to modernise their homes and farms. Improvements in infrastructure was aimed to raise living standards. Also, farmers were encouraged to use high-yielding varieties to boost their rice production, thus ending food shortage.

To symbolize this change, all rural households had to replace their thatched roof with tiles, which were more fireproof and considered more modern, although the poor often had to settle for corrugated metal roofs painted blue or orange to look like tiles.

Most important was the price support given to farm crops, especially rice. It meant higher food prices for urban workers, who often struggled on low wages, but it produced higher incomes for farmers and eventually reduced rural poverty.

An excerpt from “A Concise History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present” by Michael J. Seth.

The movement was a resounding success in the mechanisation of farming techniques. With the increased use of motor vehicles, farm output increased significantly. Furthermore, the development of collective farm estates in the 1970s contributed to the production of specific agricultural items like citrus and oysters.

Some of the specialty agricultural items produced by these estates, including citrus, oyster, and mushrooms, were exported, with remarkable growth rates in exports of citrus (1,800%) and mushrooms (1,000%) during 1972–1976. Such impressive rates of growth boosted the total value of exports of agricultural products to $328 million in 1971, a 255% increase over 1967.

An excerpt from the “The Saemaul Undong Movement in the Republic of Korea” by the Asian Development Bank, 2012.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the view that industrialisation was the most important factor in explaining the ‘Miracle on the Han River’.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the Asian Tigers. Our H2 and H1 History Tuition to get a good grasp of the A Level History content. We provide online and physical lessons to organise your study and improve your answering techniques for essay and source based case study questions.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to learn more.

JC History Tuition Online - What is the role of multinational corporations in the global economy - Global Economy Notes

What is the role of multinational corporations in the global economy?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Reasons for growth of the global economy

Find out what are multinational corporations (MNCs) and how they affect host countries. [Video by Mr. Sinn]

What are multinational corporations?
By definition, a multinational corporation (MNC) is a company that operates businesses in two or more countries. In contrast with corporations that operate strictly in their country of origin, MNCs expand their scale of operations to other countries. In the post-WWII period, the United States took the lead in establishing MNCs based in different parts of the world, such as Western Europe and Japan.

The Post-War Years
In the 1950s and 1960s, the United States contributed to nearly half of the world’s manufacturing output. American MNCs made their way to host countries like Great Britain, facilitating the transfer of technology and technical know-how. In return, host countries benefited from job creation and improvement of living standards.

By 1966 US multinationals accounted for more than 80 per cent of sewing machines, typewriters, and color film, more than 60 per cent of the calculating machines, razor blades, breakfast cereals, and spark plugs, and more than 50 per cent of the automobiles made in Britain. More than 80 per cent of the computers sold in West Germany and Italy were produced by American multinationals.

An excerpt from “Transnational Corporations and the Global Economy” by Richard Kozul-Wright and Robert Rowthorn.

The meteoric rise of Western Europe and Japan: New competitors
With the continued American support, economies in Western Europe and Japan recovered quickly. MNCs from these two parts of the world began to secure a foothold in the international landscape. By the 1980s, the American firms acknowledged the remarkable feats of their innovative counterparts in Europe and Japan.

In the 1970s, Japanese electronic multinationals moved their investments into Asia, exporting popular consumer electronics like televisions. Host countries like Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan benefited from the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Similarly, Japanese automakers have gained global recognition due to its fuel-efficiency, even challenging the dominance of veteran American companies like General Motors and Ford.

The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 increased the demand for more fuel-efficient cars, and the Japanese were well-positioned to capture an initial portion of the U.S. market. The ensuing growth during the 1980’s of foreign competition in the domestic market marked several significant transformations of the domestic automobile industry. Japanese producers priced their automobiles very competitively and consumers placed increasing emphasis on product quality and value in their purchase decisions. By 1990, Japanese firms had captured 33 percent of all U.S. car sales; European firms 5 percent; and Korean companies, 2 percent.

An excerpt from “Monthly Labour Review” by the U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Vehicles of foreign investment and international trade
In addition to the role of governments in advanced economies driving the growth of the world economy, MNCs support FDI flows to accelerate the economic development of different countries. In the 1960s, Third World nations attracted nearly half of the entire world’s FDI. However, the proportion of FDI in developing countries has declined to nearly one-third by the 1970s.

An increasing proportion of world trade occurs within transnational corporations, that is, from one branch or plant of a corporation to another branch in a different country. In 1970, more than a quarter of US manufactured exports were sold by multinational corporations to a majority-owned foreign affiliate.

… Almost all foreign direct investment originates in the developed world. In 1978, the USA alone provided 41.4% of the total stock of accumulated foreign direct investment; Japan 6.8%; and Canada 3.5%. A mere 3.2% derived from developing countries.

An excerpt from “The Golden Age Illusion: Rethinking Postwar Capitalism” by Michael John Webber.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the view that the multinational corporations were necessary in advancing the growth of the global economy after the Second World War.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about this enriching topic. Our H2 and H1 History Tuition offer online and physical classes to match your learning preferences. Additionally, you will receive concise study notes that explore various themes based on the syllabus requirements. Join our free writing practices to improve your knowledge application skills within a limited time.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to find out more.

How to study A Level History effectively during holidays - JC History Tuition Online

How to study A Level History effectively during holidays?

Make every day count
In view of the upcoming March holiday week, it is crucial for JC students to take stock of their progress. For JC 1 students, it may seem like a daunting task to approach the A Level History subject, given the vast depth of historical information. As for JC 2 students, most are at the stage of consolidating their knowledge of new topics, such as the Global Economy (H2 History) and Superpower Relations with China (H1 History). All in all, the one week break is an important phase to re-assess the situation by identifying any study issues and resolving them in a systematic and productive way.

1. Organise your materials
Given the hectic schedule of JC students, it is typical for some to pile up study notes, question papers and marked scripts in a disorganised fashion. However, the problem of misplacing learning materials can be costly. It may even be a frustrating experience to search high and low for relevant documents to revise specific topics.

To avert such an unpleasant situation, you should put in the time to arrange your materials. One cost-effective method is to use separate files or folders to organise the papers. Alternatively, you can switch to a more eco-friendly way for easy access. Setup a folder in your digital device, such as a laptop or tablet, then keep your History materials inside.

2. Revise content productively
A common error that some JC students make while studying A Level History is to spend considerable time on reading to grasp the historical developments covered in different topics. Although some may find it useful to know the intricacies of key events, like the origins of the Truman Doctrine that caused the start of the Cold War, they will encounter difficulties in expressing their ideas clearly to answer essay questions and source based case studies.

The crux of the issue lies with the way A Level History questions are set. These questions do not test your ability to regurgitate factual information, like the functions of the United Nations Security Council. Instead, the examiners are assessing your capability in analysing past events and deriving cohesive arguments. Therefore, it is imperative for students to recognise this concern and make relevant adjustments to their study methods when doing revision.

“It’s not how we make mistakes, but how we correct them that defines us.”

— Rachel Wolchin

How our JC History Tuition prepares you for the examination?
If you are unsure of the appropriate responses to address the above-mentioned issues, our JC History Tuition programme will assist you in handling them. JC 1 and JC 2 students who are taking either H2 History or H1 History will receive concise study notes to revise for various topics. These learning materials have been refined to match the key perspectives that are commonly featured in a wide range of examination questions.

Additionally, our regular tuition covers thematic content discussion to guide you through the process of studying the topics meaningfully. You will learn how to use the notes to remember key factual information in a systematic way, such that you will grasp its application in different forms.

As you prepare for your Common Tests, Block Tests or even the major assessments like the JC 1 Promotional examinations and JC 2 Preliminary examinations, our JC History Tuition programme features free writing practices. These practices are held fortnightly to get you accustomed to the time constraints. Also, your practices are marked and reviewed by the tutor.

Learn more about our current schedule for the JC History Tuition lessons held either at the centre or online.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more!

JC History Tuition Online - How did Japan emerge as a developed economy - Global Economy Notes

How did Japan emerge as a developed economy?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Reasons for growth of the global economy

Take a look at the history of Toyota’s 2000GT that was released in the 1960s. [Video by Garage Dreams]

Rapid industrialisation
After experiencing defeat during the Second World War, the Japanese government focused its efforts on post-war reconstruction. Under the ‘Reverse Course’ policy, Japan was backed by the USA to rebuild its industries.

The Cold War climate proved to be fortuitous as Japan gained from the surge of demand during the Korean War in 1950. The increased US involved in the conflict became an opportunity for Japan to raise production of war supplies.

Additionally, the Japanese government turned to the Americans for access to foreign technology. The purchase of technology then aided the private firms’ efforts to raise the efficiency of production, as seen by the rise of prominent companies like Toyota and Honda.

Japanese companies in the 1950s and 1960s spent one-quarter to one-half of all their research and development budgets to buy foreign technology.

… Over the next few years [Sony] made cheap copies of the tape recorders American occupiers had brought to Japan. In 1953 it licensed from Western Electric the right to produce the new transistors that Bell Labs had recently invented. Sony turned out its first transistor radio – the world’s second – in 1955 and brought a miniaturized “pocket radio” to market two years later.

An excerpt from “Global Capitalism” by Jeffry A. Frieden.

Better lives: Impacts of industrialisation
Strong state intervention was recognised as a major contributing factor for the Japanese ‘economic miracle’. Subsidies and loans were granted to the private firms to accelerate industrial production. Over time, living standards in Japan have improved tremendously. By 1970, almost every Japanese household owned a television, refrigerator and washing machine, ushering the ‘electronics age’.

Practically every household in Japan is now in possession of a radio while the dissemination rate of television sets is 87.8 per cent, that of electric washing machines 61.4 per cent and electric refrigerators 38.2 per cent, indicating that the standard of living in Japan has been raised considerably.

An excerpt from Japan Report, Volume 10 Number 19 – by Japan Information Center, Consulate of Japan, 15 May 1964.

By the 1970s, Japan had caught up with the USA, becoming the second-largest market economy in the world.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that the government was responsible for the phenomenal growth in Japan after the post-war years?

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the developments of the global economy. Our H2 and H1 History Tuition feature live-streamed classes for thematic discussion and online practices to improve your answering techniques. Find out how you can enhance your writing skills for essay and source based case study questions.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - How effective is the International Court of Justice - United Nations Notes

How effective is the International Court of Justice?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

All bark and no bite?
Ever since the formation of the International Court of Justice on 26 June 1945, it has addressed a variety of cases. It is involved either in the provision of advisory opinion on legal matters or arbitration.

Yet, there is increased skepticism towards the Court’s efficacy in ensuring member nations adhere to the international law.

For instance, the Court failed to enforce its ruling against the United States in 1986. Although it ruled in favour of Nicaragua, the United States refused to comply, thus diminishing the confidence of other members in submitting their cases to the Court.

The United States refused to participate in the merits phase of the case, considering the Court’s ruling ‘clearly and manifestly erroneous as to both fact and law’.

…The United States’ reaction culminated with a notice of termination of its declaration accepting compulsory jurisdiction of the Court on 7 October 1985. Given the support that the United States had traditionally given to the Court, its withdrawal from the Optional Clause System was a cause for much regret and concern.

An excerpt from “Nicaragua Before the International Court of Justice: Impacts on International Law” by Edgardo Sobenes Obregon and Benjamin Samson.

Yugoslavia: Legality of force
Following the NATO bombing campaign during the Kosovo War in 1999, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia brought up a case to the International Court of Justice. It alleged that the NATO members used military force, which was in violation of the international law.

On April 29, 1999, Yugoslavia brought proceedings before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against Belgium to redress a “violation of the obligation not to use force,” and against nine other NATO countries as well. The claims were based upon the UN Charter and several international legal conventions, including the 1949 Geneva Convention, its 1977 Additional Protocol 1, and the Genocide Convention.

An excerpt from a “Journal of Legal Studies” by the United States Air Force Academy, Department of Law.

However, the Court concluded that the parties filing the case, Montenegro and Serbia were not members of the United Nations, thus the proceedings could not take place for dispute settlement.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the political effectiveness of the International Court of Justice in maintaining the international law.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the organisational structure of the United Nations. Our H2 and H1 History Tuition feature thematic review and writing practices to improve your knowledge application skills.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to find out more.