JC History Tuition Online - What is the Look East policy - Economic Development Notes

What is the Look East Policy of Malaysia?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

Learn more about the Look East Policy that impacted Japanese-Malaysian relations as well as economic development of Malaysia. [Video by Free Malaysia Today]

Historical context: Learning from the best
Six months after Dr. Mahathir assumed the role as the Prime Minister of Malaysia, his administration launched the ‘Look East Policy‘ in February 1982, which called upon Malaysians to emulate the Japanese work ethic and business management techniques. By doing so, the government aims to acquire Japanese expertise and capital through bilateral trade and investment.

To Mahathir, the definition of ‘East’ consisted of Japan and South Korea. Interesting, Taiwan and Singapore were not being raised as case study references.

Mahathir also mentioned two features which Malaysia proposed to adopt from the Japanese model. One was the concept of Malaysia Incorporated, intended to encourage business owners and workers in the public and private sectors to work together. Another was to create large companies based on the Japanese sogo shoshas (the large trading companies), although in Malaysia these were not developed as rapidly as the Prime Minister would have wished.

An excerpt from “Malaysian Politics Under Mahathir” by Diane K. Mauzy and R. S. Milne.

Two-pronged approach
The ‘Look East Policy’ had two parts. First, Malaysians studied at the Japanese universities. Second, trainees worked at Japanese industries. The program was mainly financed by the Malaysian government, while the Japanese counterpart deployed Japanese trainers and covered part of the expenditure.

No one can dispute that Japan achieved a miracle when it rebuilt itself after the war. How did it do it? It did it by not being advised by other people. It did it in its own way. The only advice it accepted was to produce high quality goods, goods of world standards, so as to be accepted by the world markets. The rest was entirely Japanese.

[…] Japan has been censured for the close cooperation between the government and the corporations. Japan incorporated was regarded as some kind of cronyism involving the government and the private sector. Malaysia sees nothing wrong in the close collaboration between government and the private sector. The government should help the private sector to succeed because a large chunk of the profits made by the private sector belongs to the government. In helping the private sector the government is actually helping itself.

An excerpt from a speech by Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia, on “Look East Policy – The Challenges for Japan in a Globalized World“, in 2002, marking the 20th anniversary of the ‘Look East Policy’.

Dr. Mahathir held a firm belief that the ‘Look East Policy’ was vital in realising his Vision 2020, an aim to transform Malaysia into fully developed nation by doubling the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) every decade between 1990 and 2020. Japan was identified as a integral role to fulfil this national aim.

A pipedream in the making?
However, government efforts to emulate the successful Japanese model were obstructed by several factors. One such problem was the cultural differences. For instance, the Japanese employees have adapted to long working hours, but there was resistance from the Malaysians.

Another issue was related to the differences in economic development. While Japan was a pro-Capitalist developed nation, Malaysia was still in the process of transforming from a developing nation to a newly-industrialised economy.

The application of the ‘Look East Policy’ can be traced to the establishment of the Heavy Industry Corporation of Malaysia (HICOM) in 1980, which was also key feature in Mahathir’s policymaking in the 1980s. With the help of a team of United Nations development experts, HICOM formed companies, such as the Proton Saga national car project (Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional) and the Perwaja Terengganu steel mill.

While still Minister of Trade and Industry, Mahathir contacted Mitsubishi, apparently without sounding out any other possible Japanese partners, and reached agreement with Mitsubishi.

[…] There seems to have been reluctance to make use of knowledgeable Chinese in the Proton project. However, on marketing and selling, the government relied on existing Chinese firms. There was some truth in comments that the Proton was not really a Malaysian car, but a Japanese car with a Malaysian “chop” (name). In 1994 Mahathir accepted this, admitting that Malaysia would not have the know-how to produce a fully fledged car for ten to fifteen years.

An excerpt from “Malaysian Politics Under Mahathir” by Diane K. Mauzy and R. S. Milne.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that external actors were more important than domestic actors in promoting economic development of Southeast Asian states?

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the Paths to Economic Development. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - What is the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea

What is the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Regional Conflicts and Co-operation
Source Based Case Study
Theme III Chapter 2: ASEAN (Growth and Development of ASEAN: Building regional peace and security – relations between ASEAN and external powers)

Topic of Study [For H1 History Students]:
Essay Questions
Theme II Chapter 2: The Cold War and Southeast Asia (1945-1991): ASEAN and the Cold War (ASEAN’s responses to Cold War bipolarity)

Historical context: Third Indochina War
In December 1978, Vietnamese forces entered Cambodian territory and toppled the Khmer Rouge regime. Subsequently, the pro-Vietnamese People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) was formed, led by Cambodian politician Heng Samrin.

An ASEAN-backed solution: Enter the Coalition
In 1980, ASEAN and China urged the Khmer Rouge and the royalists to join forces and form a coalition group to prevent the legitimisation of the PRK government. Norodom Sihanouk had set some conditions before returning to politics, such as disarmament to prevent another round of atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge as well as the deployment of peacekeepers after the Vietnamese withdrawal.

Notably, Sihanouk also requested that the country’s official name be changed from Democratic Kampuchea to Cambodia.

Leaders of the political factions Sihanouk, Son Sann and Khieu Samphan attended a summit hosted by Singapore in September 1981. Eventually, a ‘four-points’ agreement was made, which included the formation of a Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK).

With the CGDK being formed, the factions can garner foreign military support for the other two factions besides the Khmer Rouge, particuarly the Khmer People’s National Liberation Front (KPNLF) and National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC).

On 22 June 1982, the three leaders signed an agreement to officiate the establishment of the CGDK in Kuala Lumpur. The June agreement stated that the CGDK’s aim was to “mobilize all efforts in the common struggle to liberate Kampuchea from the Vietnamese aggressors”.

More importantly, the three political factions in the coalition group would share power equally and make decisions through consensus.

On June 22, 1982, the three coalition leaders met in Kuala Lumpur to sign an agreement establishing a Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK), on the basis of four principles. Prince Norodom Sihanouk was president, with Son Sann the premier and Khieu Samphan the vice president, in charge of foreign affairs. […] and the new president launched an appeal to all friendly countries to bring aid and support for the “sacred cause”, the restoration of peace in Kampuchea and stability and security in that part of the world.

An excerpt from “Cambodia Confounds the Peacemakers, 1979-1998” by Macalister Brown and Joseph Jermiah Zasloff.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that ASEAN played a crucial role in the resolution of the Cambodian Crisis?

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the Regional Conflicts and Cooperation. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - How did the 1970s oil crises affect Southeast Asia

How did the 1970s oil crises affect Southeast Asia?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

Learn more about the 1973 oil crisis that impacted many economies, including the USA. [Video by ThamesTV]

Historical context: The 1970s oil shocks
In the early 1970s, petrostates in the Arab world agreed to boycott Western nations, such as the USA and UK, for their provision of support to Israel during the Yom Kippur War against Egypt. As a result, crude oil prices quadrupled from $3 per barrel to $12 per barrel by 1974.

The second oil shock took place between 1978-1979, in which the Iranian Revolution concluded with the fall of the Shah’s regime. At that time, Iran was the world’s second-largest oil exporter. With the temporary halt in oil production in Iran, the political turmoil had further devastated the world oil markets, causing oil prices to surge to nearly $30 per barrel by early 1980.

A windfall in Indonesia: Surge of petrodollars
In Southeast Asia, oil exporting nations like Indonesia benefited from this unprecedented development, given their membership in the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The oil price in Indonesia increased from $1.67 per barrel in 1970 to $35 in 1981.

With large inflows of revenues from oil exports, the Indonesian government used these surpluses to correct its balance of payment deficits. Furthermore, the New Order government used the oil revenues to expand the manufacturing sector, particularly through import purchases of raw materials and capital goods. More importantly, President Suharto embarked on ambitious large-scale development programs in different parts of Indonesia, including Java.

Due to the higher oil revenues, the Indonesian government was able to undertake substantial public investments and expand and improve the efficiency of the public administration sector (for instance by raising the salaries of public servants) which, in turn, contributed to economic growth.

[…] After the early 1970s first foreign aid and then oil revenues were spent on rehabilitating and expanding the long-neglected physical infrastructure (particularly in rural areas) and transport infrastructure. This rapid expansion and improvement of the physical and transport infrastructure involved roads, railways, bridges, harbours, airports and communications.

An excerpt from “Emergence of a National Economy: An Economic History of Indonesia, 1800-2000” by Howard Dick, Vincent J. H. Houben, J. Thomas Lindblad and Kian Wie Thee.

A temporary setback: For oil-importing nations in Southeast Asia
In contrast to Indonesia and Malaysia, oil-importing nations like Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines were adversely affected by the rise in oil prices. Higher oil prices meant a decline of the terms of trade as well as their balance of payment positions.

Thailand was hit harder by the second oil crisis and the subsequent world-wide recession because the country had become more dependent on external trade, and the external terms of trade were no longer favourable. […] The rate of inflation as measured by the consumer price index, which was 7 to 10 percent during the period 1977-1979, accelerated to 19.7 percent in 1980. Economic growth slowed somewhat to an annual growth rate of 7 percent in the 1970s, with the manufacturing sector growing at a higher-than-average rate of around 10 percent per annum.

An excerpt from “Economic Development in East and Southeast Asia: Essays in Honor of Professor Shinichi Ichimura” by Seiji Naya and Akira Takayama.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that governments were responsible for the economic instability in independent Southeast Asia?

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the Paths to Economic Development. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - How did Giant become the biggest bicycle manufacturer in the world

How did Giant become the biggest bicycle manufacturer in the world?

Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan] 

Learn more about the Taiwanese bicycle manufacturer Giant [Video by Cycling Pulse]

Humble beginnings: A SME run by family and friends
In 1972, a 36 year-old engineer King Liu founded Giant with a group of associates, including Tony Lo, in Taichung (臺中). Lo was a business graduate from the National Taiwan University. Interestingly, Liu cycled to work at first to understand his product better.

In 1977, Liu secured a contract to produce bicycles for an overseas American company Schwinn, which was known for its 10-speed steel machines. Giant then functioned as an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). Liu, who was fluent in Japanese, visited Japan to study the bicycle production process, replicating suitable work practices at Giant.

An unexpected turn of events: Turning setbacks into opportunities for success
In 1981, Giant set up its own bicycle brand as an Original Brand Manufacturer (OBM). It was a bold and unusual move as products that were manufactured in Taiwan were still viewed as low-quality and cheap.

Five years later, Giant brought its bicycles to the global market, starting with the Netherlands. Lo had identified Netherlands as a suitable European headquarters due to its geographical location, comprehensive infrastructure and integrated transport network. From there, Giant exported to other European markets. By the mid-1980s, Giant exported nearly 10 million bicycles a year.

The own-branding strategy was intensified when Schwinn shifted its OEM orders to its joint China’s company (China Bicycle Company) in 1985. Under this adverse condition, Liu steered the company into a new direction, through rapidly expanding its overseas branches around the world, in order to fill up the excess capacity generated by Schwinn’s withdrawal. The overseas branches were all targeted on pursuing entrepreneurial profit by promoting its own-brand Giant bicycles. Its overseas branch was established in Netherlands in 1986, the Us in 1987, Japan in 1989, Canada and Australia in 1991, and mainland China in 1992.

An excerpt from “Entrepreneurship and Taiwan’s Economic Dynamics” by Fu-Lai Tony Yu.

In the 1985, the US-based Schwinn switched to a Chinese supplier to keep production costs low. As a result, nearly three-quarters of Giant’s revenue had been affected. Yet, Giant did not relent. Instead, the company capitalised on the low production base in China, setting up two production plants in China, namely in Shanghai (上海) and Jiangsu (江苏).

Close collaboration with the government
In 1986, Giant launched a joint project with the government-funding Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). They explored use of advanced materials to create carbon fiber bicycle frames. Giant also worked on other technology diffusion projects for aluminum welding with Chun Shan Institute of Science and Technology (CSIST).

Giant’s R&D efforts had paid off as tts revenue rose to over NT$ one billion.

In 1987, Giant pioneered the mass production of carbon bicycles, particularly the model called Cadex 980C. Lo dubbed it ‘Project 88’. Giant had applied computer-aided design and volume production techniques to manufacture these carbon fiber road bicycles. By 1991, Giant manufactured 20 thousand units of carbon bicycles.

Now, Giant one of the top bicycle manufacturers in the world.

Giant thinks of itself as an innovator in the fields of production and design, as well as competitive strategy. Giant was one of the first to upgrade parts and begin exporting them when Taiwan’s market became too costly. Giant was also the first Taiwanese company to use chrome alloy steel in their frames and to produce single-piece graphite bicycle frames.

An excerpt from “Strategy, Structure, and Performance of MNCs in China” by Yadong Luo.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that Giant’s successes in export promotion were the result of Confucian culture?

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the rise of Asian Tiger economies and the Global Economy. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - What does United Microelectronics do - Asian Tigers Notes

What does United Microelectronics do?

Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan] 

Learn more about the Taiwanese semiconductor company, United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC) [Video by UMC Group (USA)]

Historical context: Silicon Valley of the East
On 22 May 1980, the United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC) was formed as the first-ever private integrated circuit (IC) company in Taiwan. The UMC was a product of the state-backed technology R&D institution, known as the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI).

Under the leadership of President Chiang Ching-kuo (蔣經國), the government embarked on an ambitious project to encourage knowledge and skills acquisition in the private sector to intensify Taiwan’s industrial development.

The UMC occupied the Hsinchu Science Park (HSIP, 新竹科學園區), which was modelled after the Silicon Valley.

Located in Hsinchu County, approximately 80 km to the south of the capital city Taipei, HSIP had easy access to the international airport and harbours, a skilled labour force and abundant technological resources, including two national universities and the government-sponsored ITRI. Since its inception, HSIP has received over US$500 million from the government, earmarked for the acquisition and development of land and construction of housing and factories.

An excerpt from “The Silicon Dragon: High-Tech Industry in Taiwan” by Terence Tsai and Bor-Shiuan Cheng.

Enter the age of semiconductors
Under the astute leadership of Robert Tsao (曹興誠), who became president of UMC in 1982, the UMC became the first IC manufacturer in Taiwan to provide wafer foundry services.

In the late 1980s, the UMC broadened its scope of production, venturing into Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAMs) and telecommunications circuitry. Tsao believed that specialisation in foundry services was the ideal model for the UMC to thrive.

The UMC turned out to be a successful spin-off from HSIP, as seen by its entry to the Taiwan Stock Exchange in 1985. From then on, the UMC went further to build increasingly advanced chips, such as Static Random Access Memory (SRAMs).

A similar venture: The TSMC
In 1987, the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) was set up. It was the second spin-off from the HSIP after the UMC. The company was a joint development with the Dutch company Philipps and the Taiwanese government.

Interestingly, the Chiang government had invited Morris Chang, who later became founder of the TSMC, to lead the ITRI in the early 1980s. Chang had put forward the idea of creating a foundry industry in Taiwan.

Originally the ERSO sent a team to RCA in the US to learn integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing technology. After the team returned to Taiwan, the members spun off from ERSO to form UMC, which began chip manufacturing.

[…] Chang led a team spun off from ITRI to form TSMC in 1987. The new business model proved effective, and TSMC became the largest semiconductor foundry in the world with $5.3 billion of sales in 2000. TSMC was therefore mainly a Taiwanese creation with state participation in ownership (48 per cent in the beginning).

An excerpt from “The East Asian High-Tech Drive” by Yun-Peng Chu and Hal Hill.

Evidently, the successes of the UMC and TSMC were partly attributed to the joint efforts of the Taiwanese and American governments (Electronics Research and Service Organization, ERSO, the Radio Corporation of America, RCA). By giving their founders and core team members the opportunities to acquire the technical know-how, the aim of creating a semiconductor industry in Taiwan could finally materialise.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the view the the United Microelectronics Corporation was a crucial piece of the puzzle in explaining the remarkable growth of Taiwan in the 1980s.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the rise of Asian Tiger economies and the Global Economy. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - Why is Taiwan an Asian Tiger - Asian Tigers Notes

Why is Taiwan an Asian Tiger?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan] 

Learn more about the contributing factors that led to Taiwan’s economic miracle. [Video by Real World Economics]

Historical context: The Cold War
During the Korean War, the Truman administration committed its armed forces to defend the Republic of China (ROC) government under Chiang Kai-shek. President Truman announced on 27 June 1950 that the Seventh Fleet would be deployed to the Taiwan Strait. His intention was to protect Taiwan from any possible Chinese attack.

The US government switched its foreign policy stance towards Taiwan from a “hands-off” approach to increased military commitment. Its purpose was to contain a possible expansion of Communist influence in East Asia.

In retrospect, Truman’s new policy of 1950 disengaged the Chinese from their hot civil war while engaging them in the global Cold War.

[…] It had secured the ROC in Taiwan from a major military showdown with the PRC on the mainland in the 1950s, it had preserved the political unity and social stability of Taiwan through the 1960s, and it had provided an opportunity for the island’s economic growth in the 1970s.

An excerpt from “The History of Taiwan” by Xiaobing Li.

Export promotion and industrial restructuring
In the 1960s, Taiwan was one of the world’s primary exporter for consumers goods, such as umbrellas, toys and shoes. In 1966, Taiwan established Export Processing Zones (EPZs). The Chiang government sought to pursue an export-driven strategy as seen by the provision of tax incentives to spur businesses to engage in international trade.

In the 1970s, the government had realised that its reliance on the maturing light industry was not sustainable, given the rise of other developing countries that possessed cheap and abundant labour. As such, it embarked on heavy and chemical industrialisation (HCI), targeting steel and petrochemical production.

In 1973, the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) was formed to facilitate the conduct of research and development (R&D). A year later, the Electronics Research Service Organisation (ERSO) was also set up, focusing on areas like electronic packaging, semiconductors and display devices. Similarly, the Hsinchu Science Park was created in 1980 to intensify efforts to develop high-tech industries. The government’s attempts have paid off as seen from the rise of tech firms like the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) and United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC).

In August 1974, Sun contacted Dr. Pan in the United States and invited him to Taiwan to produce a study of ways in which the government could upgrade local industry, with the electronics industry playing the leading role. […] Pan recommended that the electronics industry should focus on semiconductor technology and that the technology be acquired from abroad; that a two-part strategic planning team be formed, one part in the United States and one in Taiwan; and that an organizational capability for implementation within the state be set up. A U.S. partner was to be located for an agreement for technology transfer and training.

An excerpt from “The Role of the State in Taiwan’s Development” by Joel B. Aberdach.

The 1980s tech drive: OEM and ODM
In the 1980s, the government went through institutional reforms to integrate Taiwan into the global economy. It intensified its policies of trade liberalisation and financial deregulation, opening the economy gradually. Yet, it proved challenging following the opening of China in the late 1970s as part of Deng Xiaoping’s Four Modernisations (四個現代化). Many Taiwanese manufacturers shifted production to China in response to rising production costs.

In this decade, more Taiwanese manufacturers in the electronics and technology sectors adopted either of the following two models: Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) or Original Design Manufacturer (ODM). For OEM, the local companies manufactured products for transnational corporations that focused on product design and R&D. Over time, some of these firms transitioned to become ODMs, such as Acer.

While the ERSO projects were important for the PC industry, the two industry leaders, Acer and Mitac, were doing OEM for ITT since 1982 and Mitac was not part of two of the three big desktop computer projects run by ERSO. […] OEM manufacturing firms can leverage their relationships with outsourcing partners to upgrade. The experience of Mitac, Acer and other fims, such as the printed circuit board manufacturer, Compeq, confirms this theory of upgrading.

An excerpt from “Technology Transfer Between the US, China and Taiwan: Moving Knowledge” by Douglas B. Fuller and Murray A. Rubinstein.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that state intervention was indispensable in contributing to the economic miracle of Taiwan.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the rise of Asian Tiger economies, particularly Taiwan and South Korea. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

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JC History Tuition Online - How did the USA help Japan's economy after WW2 - Global Economy Notes

How did the USA help Japan’s economy after WW2?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Reasons for growth of the global economy

Learn more about the post-war economic developments of Japan. [Video by ‘How’d it happen?]

A shift of US priorities in Japan: ‘Reverse Course’ policy
After Japan was defeated in World War Two, the Allied Occupation oversaw social and political reform of Japan from 1945 to 1946, ensuring that it would not endanger world peace. Under the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) led by American general Douglas MacArthur, the Japanese military was disbanded and the zaibatsu conglomerates were broken up.

Against the backdrop of the looming Cold War tensions in Europe, the US government relooked its priorities. Instead of punishing Japan for its wartime aggression, the government supported the post-war recovery of Japan, in hopes of cultivating it as a new Cold War ally. This was also known as the ‘Reverse Course’ policy (逆コース).

After the early stages of the Occupation, SCAP began showing a strong interest in stabilizing Japan’s economy near the end of 1946. In spite of the fact that the “Basic Directive” clearly stated that the Occupation would not be responsible for economic reconstruction, faced with the danger of rampant inflation unless production restarted, SCAP had no choice but to become involved in economic reconstruction.

An excerpt from “The Economic History of Japan: 1600-1990: Volume 3: Economic History of Japan 1914-1955: A Dual Structure” by Takafusa Nakamura, Konosuka Odaka and Noah S. Brannen.

Consequences of warm bilateral relations: US aid to Japan
In 1958, negotiations for a US-Japan Security Treaty (日本国とアメリカ合衆国との間の相互協力及び安全保障条約) were underway. In essence, the treaty permitted US military bases in Japan, thereby establishing a military alliance between the two countries.

At the same time, the USA provided a series of economic assistance to build up Japan as a bulwark against communist expansion in Asia. For instance, the US government offered low-interest loans to Japan. These substantial capital injections led to increase in Japanese investments that propelled economic growth.

Additionally, the USA sponsored Japan’s admission to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) organisation in September 1955. The USA feared that an absence of market for Japanese exports may possibly draw Japan into the Communist bloc for economic cooperation. As such, the Eisenhower administration rejected protectionist demands from local groups in the USA and opened American markets to Japanese exports.

The United States needed Japan as a stable capitalist country that would provide a bulwark against communism in Asia. It therefore supported Japanese membership of the IMF and GATT in 1955 and assisted Japan in improving relations with other Asian countries in the late 1950s and early 1960s, while at the same time keeping its own market open to Japanese goods and making technology and capital available to Japanese enterprises. Japanese capitalism could thus pursue its own interests on the international stage under the umbrella of U.S. world strategy.

An excerpt from “Japanese Capitalism Since 1945: Critical Perspectives” by Tessa Morris-Suzuki and Seiyama Takuro.

From 1958 to 1960, US purchases from Japan rose by more than 150%. This enabled Japan to enjoy its first-ever trade surplus. The correction of Japan’s balance of payment deficits thus allowed it to grow rapidly.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the importance of the USA in contributing to the economic miracle of Japan after 1945.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the growth of the Global Economy, including the economic miracle of Japan and Western Europe. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - When did the European Union start and why - Global Economy Notes

When did the European Union start and why?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Problems of economic liberalisation

Learn more about the origins of the European Union. [Video by CBC News]

Historical context: The end of bipolarity and desires for a Common Market
Following the historic collapse of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989 that marked the end of the Cold War, the border between East and West is finally opened. Germany was united after more than 40 years, allowing its Eastern half to join the European Communities (EC) in 1990.

Apart from the political integration of Germany, member nations in the EC had expressed growing concerns about the slow economic progress by the mid-1980s. In comparison to rival economies like Japan and the USA, the EC members supported deregulation to boost production and trade.

The introduction of the Single or Internal Market Programme had the effect of launching a new phase in the integration process, spilling over into renewed efforts in institutional reform, reinforced EC social, regional and competition policies, and economic and monetary union. […] The programme was initially presented as an exercise in deregulation and received wholehearted support from the EC member states and business community.

An excerpt from “The European Union: Economics, Policy And History” by Susan Senior Nello.

Maastrict Treaty
European nations engaged in negotiations to anticipate the wave of globalisation in the 1990s. On 7 February 1992, the Maastrict Treaty was signed by twelve founding member states of the EC. Also known as the ‘Treaty on European Union’, it ushered in the next phase of regional integration. For instance, a single currency called the ‘Euro’ was introduced.

In December 1991 at Maastricht, member nations agreed on the Treaty on the European Union (EU), which became informally known as the “Maastricht Treaty”. […]Moreover, as part of the first pillar the Maastricht Treaty also called for an European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) which entails the creation of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the European single currency, the Euro, by 1999.

An excerpt from “The Path to European Economic and Monetary Union” by Scheherazade S. Rehman.

Impacts of the EU on international trade
With the formation of the EU, the trading bloc had accelerated the increase in intra-regional trade. It coincided with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, which was a joint effort between the USA, Mexico and Canada. Overall, the EU did bring about a significant increase in world trade in comparison with NAFTA and Japan.

Trade openness, as measured by the average shares of extra-EU nominal goods exports and imports in GDP, rose from 8 per cent in the early 1960s to about 10 per cent in the late 1990s. Currently, the NAFTA area and Japan show somewhat lower trade shares in GDP, with the former increasing its share over the period. Since the mid-1980s, the European Union and Japanese trade have shown a decline. This is largely due to relative price changes of energy and raw materials.

An excerpt from “The European Union’s Trade Policies and their Economic Effects” by Peter Hoeller Nathalie Girouard and Alessandra Colecchia.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that Europe had played a significant role in trade liberalisation?

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the growth of the Global Economy. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - How does protectionism affect the global economy

How does protectionism affect the global economy?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Problems of economic liberalisation

Trade imbalances
By the late 1960s, the USA had faced economic setbacks, such as persistent trade deficits vis-à-vis Japan and Western Europe that surged to nearly US$40 billion in 1980. Throughout the 1960s, the USA had clashed with Japan over alleged dumping that hurt the profit levels of American businesses.

In particular, the automobile industry was affected by the entry of Japanese automakers which were known for their durability and fuel efficiency. The dominance of the ‘Big Three‘, namely General Motors, Ford and Daimler Chrysler, was being challenged by the Japanese counterparts.

The Nixon administration and economists generally attributed the emerging trade deficit to Vietnam War inflation, lagging productivity gains, an overvalued dollar, and ballooning energy costs.

An excerpt from “Opening America’s Market: U.S. Foreign Trade Policy Since 1776” by Alfred E. Eckes.

Trade Act of 1974
In the early 1970s, the US government contemplated on the use of protectionism to address the economic malaise. The problems were compounded by the first oil shock in 1973 that led to a surge in inflation rates.

The committee complained about the executive’s “soft” response to certain unfair foreign trade practices. “By pursuing a soft trade policy, by refusing to strike swiftly and surely at unfair trade practices, the Executive has actually fostered the proliferation of barriers to international commerce.”

As enacted, the Trade Act of 1974 appeared to represent a major shift away from the philosophy that had guided trade policy since 1934.

An excerpt from “Opening America’s Market: U.S. Foreign Trade Policy Since 1776” by Alfred E. Eckes.

Voluntary Export Restraints
In the early 1980s, the Reagan Administration negotiated a Voluntary Export Restraint (VER) with Japan to limit the number of Japanese automobile exports. The restriction was meant to ease the competition that local car producers were facing at that time. As intended, the VER had succeeded in preventing the potential collapse of the automobile industry in the USA.

By 1985, Honda was producing over 150,00 cars in Marysville, Ohio, and Nissan had started operations in Tennessee. In the years that immediately followed, Toyota, Mazda, and Mitsubishi followed suit. […] Finally, by the early 1980s, the surge in imported automobiles from Japan that occurred in the mid- and late 1970s had aged such that the demand for after market parts for Japanese cars was now increasing.

An excerpt from “The Effects of U.S. Trade Protection and Promotion Policies” by Robert C. Feenstra

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that the economic problems in the 1970s and 1980s were the result of US policies?

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about the problems of the Global Economy. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Online - How did the Dutch influence the Indonesian economy

How did the Dutch influence the Indonesian economy?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

Historical Context
In the 19th century, the Dutch established the cultivation system known as the cultuurstelsel. The origin of the system can be traced to the early 1800s, in which the Dutch colonial government had struggled to engage private cultivators to raise crop production for export. Under the leadership of the Dutch Governor-General, van den Bosch, he switched to a different method to cultivate export crops.

In particular, the Dutch identified individual villages and instructed the people in each village to grow specific crops, such as rice, coffee and sugar. In the 1830s, export production from Java increased significantly due to the efforts put in by the Chinese merchants and indigenous Javanese ruling class and the Dutch officials.

The emergence of economic nationalism: Limitations of the Ethical Policy
Yet, the Dutch cultivation system was not deemed by all local natives as beneficial. Within the indigenous Indonesian community, some viewed economic participation by the Chinese merchants as a threats to their interests.

Influential merchant groups in urban Java, such as the Sarekat Dagang Islam, resented competition from the Chinese. The better-off farmers in Java, who controlled irrigated rice land, resented the enforced renting of land to the sugar companies. Most of those involved in the growing nationalist movement, including growing numbers of indigenous business people, would probably have agreed with the judgement of a later economist that ‘the developmental effort under the ethical system was too little and too late to be effective in raising levels of living of the Indonesian people’.

An excerpt from “Economic Change in Modern Indonesia: Colonial and Post-colonial Comparisons” by Anne Booth.

The Sarekat Dagang Islam (Islamic Trade Union) was initially formed as a Javanese traders’ cooperative to support textile traders against Chinese competitors. In 1912, it was renamed as Sarekat Islam as the organisation evolved into a mass political party.

The Dutch Ethnical Policy (Ethische Politiek) was identified as the root cause of the unequal economic opportunities that generated resentment towards the Chinese immigrants and the colonial power. The policy was guided by its slogan: ‘irrigation, education and emigration’.

The Dutch colonial administration aimed to enhance the irrigation facilities to increase agricultural productivity. However, the intended growth target was not realised. As a result, the poor living standards had fueled the growth of Indonesian nationalism instead.

The Ethical Policy sought to protect the ‘poor’ and ‘unenlightened’ Javanese peasant against the oppression by feudal Javanese overlords and ruthless Chinese. Its formulated lofty goal was to raise the prosperity of the indigenous population through direct state intervention in economic life.

[…] The economic downturn of the early 1920s and 1930s started a period of consolidation and eventually deterioration of the Ethical Policy. The political will to initiate ethical programs waned as the administration embarked on a policy of expenditure cuts to balance the budget.

An excerpt from “Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java: Colonial Relationships in Trade and Finance, 1800-1942” by Alexander Claver.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the significance of economic challenges in influencing government intervention in post-independence Southeast Asian economies.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about colonial-era policies and their impacts on the Paths to Economic Development. The H2 and H1 History Tuition feature online discussion and writing practices to enhance your knowledge application skills. Get useful study notes and clarify your doubts on the subject with the tutor. You can also follow our Telegram Channel to get useful updates.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Lower Secondary English Tuition, Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.