JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What is the role of the United Nations Security Council - JC History Essay Notes

What is the role of the United Nations Security Council?

Topic of Study [For H1/H2 History Students]:
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

Examine the role of the Security Council to understand its significance in maintaining international peace and security.

Role of the UN Security Council (UNSC)
The Security Council is the primary organ that bears the responsibility to maintain international peace and security. It is comprised of 15 members: Five permanent members (known as the ‘P5’ in short – namely USA, Russia, UK, France and China) as well as ten non-permanent members (elected for two-year terms).

In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.

In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII

Article 24, Chapter V of the United Nations Charter

#1: Empowerment of the UNSC
As outlined in Article 24, the UNSC is granted the empowerment tools to invoke Chapters VI (Pacific Settlement of Disputes), VII (Actions with respect to Threats to the Peace), VIII (Regional arrangements) and XII (International Trustee System) to fulfill its primary role.

The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter.

Article 25, Chapter V of the United Nations Charter

Furthermore, the resolutions of the UNSC are binding, implying that affected parties, including members of the United Nations must comply.

Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes
We will be examining three aspects to understand the significant role of the UNSC in invoking the relevant ‘Chapters’. First, Chapter VI involves the diplomatic and peaceful approach of encouraging warring parties to cooperate with the UN and resolve the conflicts without violence.

1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.

2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

Article 33, Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter

In practice, the United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) is instructed by the Security Council to act on these resolutions through peaceful means, if possible.

Chapter VII: Action with respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression
Another critical option that the UNSC can introduce is Chapter VII. Should diplomacy fail, the use of force is considered as the next possible option. According to the UN Charter, a ‘Military Staff Committee’ is established to oversee the procedures on how it can be carried out appropriately.

The ‘Collective Security’ principle was applied in practice notably in two situations: the Korean War (1950) and the Gulf War (1990).

The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

Article 39 and 42, Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter

Chapter VIII: Regional Arrangements
Lastly, the UNSC can employ the assistance of ‘regional arrangements’, which simply can be referred to regional organizations to fulfill its resolutions. The benefit of relying on these groupings is that UN can gather operational resources, including troop contributions, rapidly to conduct swift crisis responses. This is backed by the observation that the United Nations lacks a ‘permanent standing army’. Throughout the UN-sponsored operation, these ‘regional arrangements’ must adhere to the principles of the UN Charter to ensure the maintenance of international peace and security.

In particular, the UNSC must authorize any form of enforcement before the ‘regional arrangement’ can do so.

The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council

Article 53, Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter

Yet, there were instances in which authorization was not sought after, as exemplified by the Kosovo War. During the conflict, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) carried out its bombing campaign in Yugoslavia from March to June 1999. China and Russia opposed NATO’s proposal for military action.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand the topic:
– Assess the view that structural limitations were the greatest hindrance to the functioning of the United Nations Security Council from 1945 to 2000. [to be discussed in class].

Join our JC History Tuition and find out how you can organise your areas of study for these comprehensive topics, such as ‘Safeguarding International Peace and Security’ and ‘Economic Development after Independence’. Additionally, you can sign up for related JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to register now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What is the role of the United Nations General Assembly - JC History Essay Notes

What is the role of the United Nations General Assembly?

Topic of Study [For H1/H2 History Students]:
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

Examine the role of the UNGA to understand its contributions to the world.

Role of the UN General Assembly (UNGA)
The General Assembly is the principal deliberative organ of the United Nations. It comprises of the representatives of all member states that admitted the international organization.

#1: Discussions and recommendations on matters affecting international peace and security
In particular, the UNGA is charged with the responsibility to facilitate discussions among member states to address matters pertaining to international peace and security.

The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.

Article 10, Chapter IV of the UN Charter

However, it is imperative to acknowledge the advisory role of the UNGA as the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) bears the primary responsibility in the authorization of use of force in dealing with such matters.

The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.

Article 11(2), Chapter IV of the UN Charter

#2: Voting Process and Resolutions
After much deliberation, member states of the UNGA would undertake a voting process to decide whether to adopt a resolution (i.e. a course of action). Each member state is entitled to one vote. A two-thirds majority must be made before the resolution can be passed.

These resolutions can be passed to address matters, such as the admission of new member states to the General Assembly.

Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security, the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council…

Article 18, Chapter IV of the UN Charter

#3: ‘Uniting for Peace’ Resolution
Although there were Charter limitations that inhibited the UNGA’s role, a reform was introduced on 3 November 1950, known as the ‘Uniting for Peace’ (UfP) resolution.

If the Security Council, because of lack of unanimity of the permanent members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security in any case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, the General Assembly shall consider the matter immediately with a view to making appropriate recommendations to Members for collective measures, including in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression the use of armed force when necessary, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Resolution 377(V), 3 November 1950

In practice, the UfP resolution was first invoked during the Suez Canal Crisis of 1956. Due to the vetoes by France and the United Kingdom, the resolution empowered the UNGA to act. This lead to the successful formation of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) that supervised the cessation of hostilities in Egypt.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand the topic:
– Assess the view that great power politics impeded the role of the United Nations General Assembly during the Cold War [to be discussed in class].

Sign up for our JC History Tuition as we teach you to organise your content for the United Nations topics, which is one of the most comprehensive chapters that JC History students will cover in the A Level History syllabus. Also, you can sign up for related JC tuition classes, such as GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What were the consequences of the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 - JC History Essay Notes

What were the consequences of the Asian Financial Crisis?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 2: Asian Financial Crisis

The aftermath of the regional currency crisis
In view of the causes that explain how the Asian Financial Crisis began, it is important to examine its consequences. This includes the government responses that varied between Southeast Asian nations, such as the bail-out loans by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), crisis response packages and stringent financial regulatory measures.

Immediate government responses
After the Asian Financial Crisis happened, governments played a critical role in introducing immediate responses to arrest the situation.

For instance, the Thai government tried to maintain the peg by tapping on its reserves to prevent further currency depreciation, which was caused by speculative attacks. From 1997 to 1998, it was estimated that nearly US$30 billion was spent to maintain the baht.

Unfortunately, their efforts proved futile, such that the abandonment of the fixed exchange rate led to rapid currency depreciation. On 2 July 1997, the baht was allowed to float, resulting in the depreciation of the currency value by 18%. By January 1998, the value had fallen to US$1 to $55 baht.

Given the economic interconnectedness of Southeast Asian markets, the Thai economic crisis spread to other neighbouring economies, which was known as the contagion effect.

Crisis Response Measures
Another important consideration was the introduction of crisis response measures to contain the economic crisis. These measures involved large government spending to stimulate the markets and facilitate recovery.

For example, the Malaysian government formed the National Economic Action Council (NEAC) in 1998 to pursue economic stabilization. One method included the imposition of capital controls to stabilize the ringgit.

Additionally, the national asset management company, known as Pengurusan Danaharta Nasional Berhad, was in responsible for relieving the banking system of its non-performing loans (NPLs) and assets. By 30 September 2005, the Danaharta had resolved all of its NPLs. It was reported to have met its recovery target of RM30.35 billion.

In fact, Danaharta was one of the three-pronged strategy that the Malaysian government introduced to achieve stabilization of the banking system. It also included Danamodal Nasional Berhad and the Corporate Debt Restructuring Committee (CDRC).

Acceptance of IMF Bail-out Loans
Lastly, the IMF also offered to provide bail-out loans to affected Southeast Asian economies. These conditional loans required governments to accept an IMF-imposed set of policies. In particular, the IMF required recipient countries to engage in fiscal austerity (spending cuts) to correct their balance of payment deficits. Yet, these governments were not running budget deficits, thus worsening the economic slowdown.

“I thought this was a mistake. For one thing, unlike the Latin American nations, the East Asian countries were already running budget surpluses. In Thailand, the government was running such large surpluses that it was actually starving the economy of much ­needed investments in education and infrastructure, both essential to economic growth. And the East Asian nations already had tight monetary policies, as well: inflation was low and falling. (In South Korea, for example, inflation stood at a very respectable four percent.) The problem was not imprudent government, as in Latin America; the problem was an imprudent private sector­­ – all those bankers and borrowers, for instance, who’d gambled on the real estate bubble.”

Former World Bank Chief Economist, Joseph Stiglitz, New Republic, 17 April 2000 – Source: https://bit.ly/2GIk2cp

For example, Indonesia accepted the IMF bail-out reluctantly. By the time the third agreement was introduced, the government acceded to IMF’s demands to remove subsidies on essentials, like food, medicine and fertiliser.

This proved to be disastrous, given that the loss of state support raised the cost of living and worsened socio-economic conditions. As a result, the skyrocketing basic commodity prices resulted in a surge in inflation rate. Poverty rate increased from 11% before the crisis to nearly 60% afterwards.

Furthermore, the economic instability had severe socio-political consequences that culminated in the resignation of Suharto.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that governments of Southeast Asian economies were responsible for the consequences of the Asian Financial Crisis? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have learnt the consequences of the Asian Financial Crisis, it is imperative that you apply your knowledge to A Level History essay questions. You can sign up for our JC History Tuition to find out how you can organise your content and form well-analyzed essays to ace the GCE A Level History examination.

Furthermore, we conduct other useful JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to sign up now.

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What are the main aims of economic development - JC History Essay Notes

What are the main aims of economic development?

Nicholas Tarling’s three aims
According to the distinguished historians, Nicholas Tarling and Norman Owen, who published The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, there are three aims of economic development: growth, equity and nationalism. We will be examining the significance of these aims individually to understand why there is a high degree of government intervention in the post-independence Southeast Asian states.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

Aim #1: Economic Growth
One of the most common aims of economic development involves economic growth, which is typically measured in the monetized value of the goods and services produced within a country, seen in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

To assess the economic performance of a country, it is important to examine the ability of governments to achieve short-term and long-term economic growth.

Also, another relevant aspect is the percentage share of GDP contributed by the three sectors: agriculture, industry and finance. As a country advances, a large proportion of growth is derived from the secondary and tertiary sectors (industry and finance).

Aim #2: Economic Equity
The second aim involves the reduction of income gap between the rich and the poor. In some Southeast Asian states, leaders advocate the equality of opportunity, which can be measured by the percentage of population that suffering from poverty.

As such, their policies are extensively focused on a more equitable distribution of resources. For example, governments introduce legislation to facilitate land reforms for state acquisition and re-distribution to rural households.

Aim #3: Economic Nationalism
The third aim refers to the indigenization of wealth and production to reduce foreign ownership of domestic sectors of economy. Following the process of decolonization, many Southeast Asian states sought to reduce foreign influence in their economic development.

This aim is usually achieved by implementing policies of nationalization. The governments impose strict controls to limit or eradicate foreign ownership. At same time, state-owned enterprises are formed to replace these foreign companies. For example, in Indonesia, the Dutch assets in petroleum were nationalized, thus forming the Permina, known as the state-owned oil company. Later, it was renamed as Pertamina.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– The pursuit of economic growth is the most important aim that Southeast Asian governments should prioritize on after independence. Discuss. [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have examined the three aims of economic development, you should look for practice questions to apply your knowledge. You can also join our JC History Tuition as we provide summary notes and practice questions (with reference answers) to demonstrate the applicability of knowledge for examinations.

Furthermore, we conduct other related JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to sign up now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What caused the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 - JC History Essay Notes

What caused the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 2: Asian Financial Crisis

What exactly is the ‘East Asian Crisis’?
In July 1997, the markets in East and Southeast Asian were affected by a financial meltdown that began in Thailand. Due to a mix of factors, such as financial speculation and inadequate regulatory measures, the Thai government was forced to float the baht. This caused market pessimism, which led to the outflow of capital. In view of the inter-connected markets within the Southeast Asian region, the economic problems in Thailand began to spread to other neighbouring countries, like Thailand. This was known as a ‘financial contagion‘.

1. Unregulated financial liberalization
One possible factor for the Asian Financial Crisis was the unregulated liberalization. Partially, this was the result of the increased liberalization of the financial sector in the 1980s. As foreign investments were welcomed as major sources of economic growth, there were minimal regulations to stem the flow of capital.

As such, the sustained economic growth boosted market sentiments, thereby creating the optimistic outlook that Southeast Asia was a potential for future growth. Thus, foreign investors funded investment activities in the region. However, financial liberalization exposed several weaknesses.

In Thailand, the Bangkok International Banking Facility (BIBF) enabled banks and finance companies to access short-term credit with low interest rates. The credit was lent to Thai borrowers to finance long-term projects with high interest rates. Therefore, the ease of credit access resulted in the expansion of BIBF loans that amounted to nearly $115 billion baht.

2. The shortcomings of a fixed exchange rate system
The second contributing factor relates to the use of a fixed exchange rate system in some of the SEA economies. A fixed exchange rate system meant that governments could determine the external value of money. Currency stabilization was an ideal consideration as it raises market confidence to promote investment and trading activities.

However, a large pool of foreign reserve was needed in order for governments to intervene in the foreign exchange (i.e. ‘forex’ in short) market and maintain the exchange rate.

Initially, the Thai baht was pegged to the American dollar (USD) at 25 baht : 1 USD. Yet, the inability to maintain the currency value had left the economy vulnerable to speculative attacks that began in November 1996. Thailand’s reserves of US$39 billion declined to US$2 billion by June 1997.

Eventually, the inability to maintain the currency peg led to the eventual floating of the baht on 2 July 1997, thus losing 17% of its value relative to the USD. Consequently, there was a plunge in investor confidence, resulting in the withdrawal of foreign capital from the regional markets.

3. Speculative attacks
The third contributing factor relates to foreign currency speculation. Short-term capital flows created exchange rate instability, which was exacerbated by market pessimism. Therefore, the outflow of capital resulted in currency depreciation.

In Thailand, foreign investors sold their baht, causing a sharp fall in the currency value. By end 1997, the baht lost 80% of its value relative to the USD. There were lingering perceptions that the neighbouring economies were also susceptible to market volatility.

Therefore, this dampened investor confidence, resulting in the subsequent outflow of capital in other economies, like Indonesia. By February 1998, the Indonesian rupiah lost 76% of its value relative to the USD.

How did the financial crisis affect the Southeast Asian economies?
In general, the massive currency devaluation led to a significant economic downturn that hampered the development of many economies in Southeast Asia, including Singapore and Indonesia.

With currency depreciation, some of these economies experienced higher unemployment and inflation rates. For instance, Indonesia was adversely affected by the Thai financial crisis. The unemployment rate in Indonesia surged beyond 6% in 1999. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate was at -15% in 1998. In Malaysia, the GDP growth rate was at -5.8% in the same year.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 was the result of currency speculation? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have examined the possible contributing factors that gave rise to the Asian Financial Crisis, it is important to apply this knowledge by answering similar practice questions. You can also join our JC History Tuition. We provide additional learning resources, such as summary notes, essay outlines and case study materials.

Additionally, we offer other related JC tuition programmes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to join now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Myanmar develop its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Myanmar develop its economy?

Overall Economic Assessment of Myanmar
After Myanmar attained independence on 4 January 1948, the government pursued economic development, which is strongly guided by nationalistic and socialist influences. In view of the political challenges, there was strong government intervention. Over time, the military took a prominent role in maintaining political stability, while guiding the development of the economy. By the 1980s, Myanmar engaged in economic liberalization, encouraging the inflow of private investment.

Examine how the Chinese ‘Belt Road Initiative’ (BRI) will transform Myanmar’s economy.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1948 to 1962: U Nu’s Democratic Governance
Before Myanmar attained independence, the British colonial powers transformed its economy by focusing in agricultural production. By 1930s, nearly two-thirds of the labour force were involved in the agrarian sector. Following World War II, the devastation caused by war left many infrastructure in ruins.

Therefore, the government embarked in the Pyidawtha Plan, which is a eight-year economic plan that set higher targets for growth. The purpose was to rebuild the public infrastructure for economic recovery. Due to the high degree of foreign ownership in the economic sectors, nationalisation became one of the foremost approaches. For instance, the Land Nationalisation Act (1948) was passed to facilitate the consolidation and re-distribution of land for agricultural development.

1962 to 1988: Ne Win’s Burmese Way to Socialism
However, the country was faced with political instability due to internal divisions. Military intervention became necessary to restore stability, thus paving the way for the rise of Ne Win’s leadership. Ne Win’s military government centralised its economic development based on the ideology of ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’, which placed great emphasis on state control across economic sectors.

For example, the Burma Oil Company used to be a joint venture during U Nu’s time. In 1963, this company was nationalised. Likewise, in the banking sector, the government maintained a tight control to ensure that all domestic capital was in the hands of the state. As for the agricultural sector, the Tenancy Law (1965) was passed, which facilitated land redistribution.

1988 to 1997: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Following the resurgence of democratisation in the 1980s, the government engaged in economic liberalisation. The financial sector benefited from this increased openness, as seen by the Foreign Investment Law (1988). This law allowed foreign companies to invest in local ventures. Furthermore, the Financial Institutions Law (1992) was passed to allow the establishment of private commercial banks.

As a result of economic liberalisation, Myanmar’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased by 7.3% per year in the period of 1992 to 1997. Additionally, financial openness contributed to greater inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI), which approximated at US$2.8 billion at one point in time.

In summary, the strong government intervention was a common feature in Myanmar throughout the time period since independence to 1997.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question to understand this country-specific case study:
– Assess the role of the government in shaping the economic development of Myanmar after independence. [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have considered the strategies employed by the government in guiding economic development of Myanmar, it is important to apply this knowledge by writing A Level History essays. Alternatively, you can sign up for our JC History Tuition. We provide summary notes, essay outlines and source-based case study question answers for effective revision.

Furthermore, we conduct other related JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to sign up now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What caused the economic miracle in Vietnam - JC History Essay Notes

What caused the economic miracle in Vietnam?

The post-unification Vietnam
After the prolonged military confrontation between the Vietnam and the French/Americans (Indochina Wars), the unified Vietnamese economy was relatively unstable. Due to strong government intervention, swift resource consolidation was achieved. Fast forward to the 21st century, Vietnam is recognised as one of the leading emerging economies.

IMF examines the changing economic development of Vietnam from 1986 onward.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1976-1985: Post-unification Vietnam
The Second Five-Year Plan (1976-1980) focused on two major areas – agricultural development and industrialization. For the agriculture sector, the New Management System was established to facilitate large-scale collectivisation. For industry, the government held strong control over many private sectors.

Although there were setbacks to the Second Five-Year Plan, the government persisted, as observed by the Third Five-Year Plan (1981-1985). The latter focused on the policy of decentralisation, in which there was greater private economic participation. For example, peasants in the agriculture sector were allowed to sell their produce in the open market, thereby facilitating the development of a ‘family economy’.

1986-1996: ‘Doi Moi
In 1986, the Doi Moi (renovation) was introduced. In short, it focused economic liberalisation. One of the most significant policies involved the Foreign Investment Law (1987). This law allowed greater foreign ownership and provided greater incentives for export production. In 1990, the Vietnamese government set up four commercial banks.

In the agriculture sector, the government introduced Resolution 10, which involved the de-collectivisation of agriculture. The Land Law and Agricultural Land Use Law were introduced.

As a result, economic liberalisation contributed to the rapid economic growth in Vietnam. From 1992 to 1997, its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rate was 8% per annum. By 1996, Vietnam received foreign direct investment (FDI) that was estimated at US$8.5 billion per year. Furthermore, Vietnam became the third largest exporter in the world.  

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question to understand this country-specific case study:
– How far do you agree that resource consolidation is the most important government strategy in developing the economy of Vietnam after 1975? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have studied the government strategies that shaped the Vietnamese economy, it is imperative to review your knowledge application by writing essays. You can also sign up for our JC History Tuition. We provide condensed learning materials and essay outlines for references and revision.

Additionally, we offer other related JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to join now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Philippines grow its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Philippines grow its economy?

About the Philippine economy
After the attainment of independence, the Philippines became one of the leading Southeast Asian economies that was comparable to neighbouring countries, like Malaysia and Singapore. The 1970s became the turning point due to internal economic mismanagement, thus contributing to political turmoil that ended with a switch to the new administration by the early 1990s.

Find out more about the modern economic development of the Philippines after independence.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1946 to 1965: Post-independent Philippines
During the early stages of independence, Philippines was heavily reliant on primary exports, due to its trade links with USA. This can be explained by the pre-indpendence policies, like the Payne Aldrich Tariff Act (1909) that granted US access to some Philippine goods.

One significant approach involved economic indigenization via the establishment of the National Development Company, which facilitated the formation of state agencies to control key sectors of the economy. For example, the Philippine Sugar Institute was formed in 1951.

The second strategy involved agricultural development. Given the heavy reliance on primary exports for growth, the government engaged in major land reforms, as seen by the Rice Share Tenancy Act (1946). The purpose was for resource consolidation and re-distribution.

1965 to 1986: The ‘era of Marcos’
Under the leadership of Ferdinand Marcos, the government continued its extensive state intervention to guide the development of the Philippine economy.

The government undergone transition for import-substitution industrialization (ISI) to export-oriented industrialization (EOI), as exemplified by policies that encouraged the inflow of foreign investment. For example, the Board of Investment was formed. This public entity then implemented the Investment Incentives Act (1967) to facilitate the influx of foreign investment. Additionally, the Export Incentives Act (1970) was introduced to provide incentives for the production of manufactured exports.

Following the imposition of martial law in 1972, the government raised its level of intervention in the economy. There was greater state ownership in various sectors, as seen by organizations like the Philippine Sugar Commission and the Asia Brewery.

Around the 1960s to 1970s, Marcos also capitalized on the Green Revolution to enhance the productivity of agriculture. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was set up to allow the development of high-yielding and disease-resistant rice varieties. In addition, the ‘Masagana 99’ (Rice Production Programme) was introduced to grant rice farmers access to fertilizer subsidies and credit. Hence, the farmers benefited from state support, as seen by the achievement of self-sufficiency in rice production by 1972.

1986 to 1997: Post-Marcos Era
Following the economic instability and political unrest that caused the transition to a new administration, the Philippine government sought to resolve these past setbacks urgently.

One such obstacle was the large external debt due to Marco’s extensive borrowing. Austerity measures were introduced to reduce deficits. Also, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law was passed in 1988 to facilitate land reforms, thereby transferring ownership to farmers.

Besides, there was greater privatization to reduce excessive state ownership, which was recognized as an inefficient approach for economic development. For example, monopolies in industries like telecommunications and power generation were dismantled.

Over time, the post-Marco period was met with greater success due to the restoration of economic stability. Privatization was effective in providing the country with its much-needed revenue for recovery. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in the 1990s averaged at 3.3%.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question to understand this country-specific case study:
– To what extent was state involvement beneficial to the economic development of the Philippines after independence? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have examined the strategies and outcomes of the Philippine economy, we encourage you to attempt essay questions to review your knowledge thoroughly. An alternative approach is to join our JC History Tuition. We provide useful summary notes and essay outlines to enhance your knowledge application skills.

Furthermore, we conduct other related JC tuition classes, like GP TuitionEconomics TuitionJC Chemistry TuitionJC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuitionclasses, we offer Secondary English TuitionSecondary Math tuitionSecondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to sign up now and get discounts!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Indonesia build its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Indonesia build its economy?

Overall economic trend of Indonesia
From independence to 1970s, the Indonesian government was pre-occupied with its political development. Also, there was much emphasis on agriculture, given its substantial natural endowments. Although the country encountered several setbacks, astute government intervention resulted in the rapid economic growth from 1970s to 1980s due to the continued emphasis on industrialization. Nevertheless, given its large geographical size, the Indonesian economy has a massive potential for economic growth.

Find out more about the critical factors that explain the economic successes of modern Indonesia.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1957 to 1965: ‘Guided Democracy’ [Soekarno]
Following the harsh and disruptive colonial rule and World War Two, the Indonesian government, under Soekarno’s leadership, pursuit economic nationalism to restore state control of key economic sectors. In 1957, the seizure of foreign-owned assets was carried out for state consolidation and re-allocation. For instance, the ‘Peraturan Presiden Nomor 10 tahun 1959‘ (Government Regulation 10) disallowed foreigners from conducting businesses in specific areas. At the same time, the regulation forced the transfer of business ownership to local citizens.

In addition, under the guidance of the Bappenas [Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional] (National Planning Council), the Indonesian government focused on national development. The plan involved an estimated spending of $30 billion rupiah on an annual basis. Land reform was also conducted to nurture the development of the agricultural sector, as observed by the Basic Agrarian Law (Peraturan Dasar Pokok-Pokok Agraria).

1965 to 1997: ‘New Order’ [Suharto]
After the sudden political transition, Suharto led a major economic transformation that resulted in the rapid modernisation of Indonesia. Together with his team of Western-educated technocrats, also known as the ‘Berkeley Mafia‘, Suharto introduced liberal economic policies.

The BULOG [Badan Urusan Logistik] (National Logistics Body) was established in 1966 for price stabilization in the agriculture sector. To protect the interests of the locals, the government introduce price control measures to reduce inflationary pressures for crops, such as rice.

At the same time, the BIMAS (Mass Guidance Programme) was implemented in 1969 to nurture the rice industry through the provision of access to foreign technology. Also, Suharto capitalized on the Green Revolution by providing disease-resistant and high-yielding varieties.

As a result, Indonesia flourished tremendously from its successful efforts in raising rice production. In fact, agriculture contributed to nearly one-third of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Another critical aspect of Indonesia’s rapid economic growth can be traced to its emphasis on export-oriented industrialization (EOI). It began with the provision of incentives to attract foreign investment, such as the New Investment Law of 1967, which guaranteed no corporate tax for specific projects.

Additionally, financial liberalization was pursued in the 1980s. For example, the government allowed the deregulation of money markets, as evidenced by the increase in number of private local banks from 63 in 1988 to 165 in 1995. By 1990, the privatization of the Jakarta Stock Exchange promoted investment activities. These changes can be explained by the easing of licensing regulations for foreign banks.

Hence, we can observe that the 1980s and 1990s were a notable period in which the government played a secondary role, thus allowing the private sectors to guide the economic development of Indonesia.

Furthermore, the government tapped on the economic expertise and domestic capital of its Chinese-dominated private businesses to flourish the economy. By 1996, a group of domestic conglomerates became the key pillar of the economy, such as the Salim Group (e.g. Indomie!) and Astra Group.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand this country-specific case study:
– How important was the government in shaping the economic development on Indonesia after independence? [to be discussed in class]

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JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Thailand advance its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Thailand advance its economy?

Understanding the ‘Land of Smiles’
To comprehend the vast landscape of Thailand’s economic development, it is important to organise the assessment by time periods, lasting from 1938 to 1997. In general, the economic development was largely guided by strong government intervention. Under the guidance of the government, different sectors were being developed, starting with agriculture, followed by industry and tertiary aspects (like tourism).

Find out how Thailand’s economy has developed over the years, as observed by the World Bank

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1938 to 1957: Development of domestic capabilities
One of the central government policies, while under Phibun’s rule, was nationalization. Before the Siamese revolution of 1932, the economy was heavily guided by foreign investments from Western colonial powers, like the British. For instance, the government nationalized the British-American Tobacco Company. The Tobacco Act also restricted foreign participation in critical sectors. Over time, such policies allowed the locals to restore economic control in these areas.

In addition, the government formed the National Economic Development Corporation (NEDCOL) in 1954 to promote state-led industrialization. The Industrial Promotion Act provided tax exemption to encourage the participation of local manufacturers. As such, the protection of domestic firms from foreign competition gave them time to grow, thus contributing to economic growth.

1957 to 1980: Outward Expansion and Industrialization
Although Phibun was successful in achieving economic nationalism to undergo resource consolidation, the strong reliance on primary exports limited the extent of growth. Hence, the subsequent political leaders in this time period explored other options, particularly export-led industrialization.

The NEDCOL was reformed into the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) in 1950. The government formulated several plans to enhance the growth of Thailand. One notable target was the promotion of foreign investment. As such, the government established the Board of Investment (BOI) in 1959. Then, the Promotion of Investment Act was passed to provide various incentives for foreign investors to finance the industrialization process. For example, tax exemptions were granted to firms that imported raw materials for production.

Additionally, the government tapped on the favourable international climate, seen in terms of the Green Revolution (mid-1960s), to enhance the growth of the agriculture sector. The government introduced high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties (IR-8) to raise the output effectively. More importantly, diversification of crops helped to expand the sources of growth. For example, the farmers grew not only rice, but also rubber and maize.

Therefore, these policies have benefited the economy. The inflow of foreign investment was critical in financing the local projects, thus contributing to the development of infrastructure. Also, diversification proved to be an astute decision as the country grew as a result of multiple sectors.

1980 to 1997: Financial Liberalization and Tourism
Following the Crisis Decades, which saw a slight dip in the growth by the mid-1980s, the Thai government pursued export-led growth to sustain the economic development. To achieve this, there was strong emphasis on financial liberalization to attract the essential foreign investment and propel growth.

One of the most significant policies involved the establishment of the Bangkok International Banking Facility (BIBF), which provided tax incentives to numerous banks. As such, this enhanced credit access for exporters.

Besides, from the late 1980s to 1997, the Thai government nurtured the growth of the tourism sector through the support from private entities. The private firms were given more control in the provision of tourist-related services. As a result, the economy benefited from a surge in inflow of foreign currencies.

Nevertheless, it is important to consider the drawbacks of financial liberalization as it left Thailand vulnerable to speculative attacks in the 1990s, which culminated in the disastrous Asian Financial Crisis of 1997.

Concluding remarks
In retrospect, the Thai government played a crucial role in contributing to the growth of various sectors, starting with agriculture. Over time, the government also provided opportunities for the private businesses to play a larger role by the 1980s and 1990s.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand this country-specific case study:
– ‘Industrialization was the most crucial feature that explained the growth of the Thai economy.’ Discuss. [to be discussed in class]

After examining this country-specific case study, it is important for you to apply this knowledge to essay questions. Join our JC History Tuition as we teach you to form logical and well-analyzed arguments effectively. Also, we provide useful summary notes and outlines to raise the productivity of revision sessions.

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