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JC History Tuition Online - What does the flying geese model suggest - Asian Tiger Economies Notes

What does the flying geese model suggest?

Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan] 

The Flying Geese model
According to the Japanese economist Kaname Akamatsu, Asian economies could grow based on a ‘flying geese model’. (FG model). Akamatsu noted that ‘Wild geese fly in orderly ranks forming an inverse V, just as airplanes fly in formation‘. After Japan achieved rapid economic recovery in the post-WWII years, it took the lead in economic development, whereas its neighbouring countries like Taiwan and South Korea followed suit.

During the 1930s, a Japanese economist, Kaname Akamatsu, initially sketched out a long span of history involving the evolutionary interrelationships of a developing Asian country (Japan) with the advanced West. His interest was to examine how developing countries in general may catch up with the advanced ones through their mutual interactions.

[…] Akamatsu presents a stylized four-stage model of evolving trade patterns of a typical developing country along its development process (catching-up), where the existing manufactured products are clustered into two broad categories: “consumer goods” and “capital goods”.

An excerpt from “The Asian Developmental State and the Flying Geese Paradigm” by the United Nations Conferenceo n Trade and Development.

Application on Asian economies
Although the FG model was developed in the 1930s, academics have based their research on this model in subsequent decades. While Japan was at the forefront of economic development in Asia, the ‘four tiger’ economies, namely South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong, played catch up.

After the 1970s, when Japan moved into an upper ladder of technological-intensive sectors such as the automobile industry and machinery after the first energy crisis in 1973-74, Taiwan and Korea kept chasing behind Japan’s footstep by moving to an upper ladder of technological sophistication with some varieties in the second phase; while Korea developed its brand name of automobiles, Taiwan, due to the limit of domestic market for scale economy, chose to develop auto parts and machinery tools instead of manufacturing the whole passenger cars.

An excerpt from “A Century of Development in Taiwan: From Colony to Modern State” by Peter C. Y. Chow.

For Taiwan, the government emulated Japan by focusing on labour-intensive production and exported to industrialised economies, like the USA, in the 1960s. In the 1970s, Taiwan then shifted from labour-driven to capital-oriented industries in response to rise labour and import costs, which were exacerbated by the twin oil shocks.

To some extent, it was the ‘flying geese’ pattern of industrial development by following the footstep of Japan’s industrialisation in the post-war era. Meier argued that it was a process of ‘learning by exporting’ by picking up the industrial sectors that Japan left when it moved up on the ‘ladder of comparative advantage’.

[…] Taiwan, as one of the first tier of the flying geese, faced more competition in the second stage of EP (export promotion) from the second tier followers in South East Asia and China after its economic reform and openness.

An excerpt from “Connecting Taiwan: Participation – Integration – Impacts” by Carsten Storm.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the importance of the ‘Flying Geese’ model in explaining the phenomenal growth of Taiwan from the 1970s to 1980s.

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JC History Tuition Online - Why is Hyundai so successful - Asian Tigers Notes

Why is Hyundai so successful?

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan]

Learn more about the history of Hyundai to find out how it grown to become a dominant Korean automaker [Video by Hyundai]

Humble beginnings
Chung Ju-yung was born in poverty-stricken family that relied on farming to make a living. After the end of the Second World War, Chung established the Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company (HECC). The HECC began its operations as a civil engineering subcontractor that provided maintenance and repair work in the 1950s.

A turn of events: The Korean War
During the Korean War, the HECC took on projects by the United States Army, enabling it to expand into one of the leading construction companies in South Korea. Furthermore, Chung worked with the Rhee administration to secure construction projects for the development of local infrastructure.

When General Park Chung-hee took over in the 1960s, Chung continued to obtain contracts to entrench Hyundai’s market dominance, such as the development of the Gyeongbu Expressway. Externally, the HECC helped to develop infrastructure in Vietnam and the Middle East, which proved to be a fortuitous time for diversification.

The success of HECC in the construction industry, aided by support from the Park military government, enabled Hyundai to diversify into the automobile and shipbuilding industries and establish the Hyundai Motor Company and Hyundai Heavy Industries in 1967 and 1974.

… This aggressive entry into the Middle East market had important implications for the growth of both HECC and the Hyundai Business Group. It enabled HECC to become an international construction company no longer dependent on its domestic market. Moreover, the rapid expansion of its heavy industrial construction projects created a large internal demand for materials, enabling Hyundai to strengthen its monopoly position in the domestic construction market during the 1970s.

An excerpt from “The Chaebol and Labour in Korea: The Development of Management Strategy in Hyundai” by Seung-Ho Kwon and Michael O’Donnell.

Enter Hyundai Motor
Initially, the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) forged a joint agreement with the US-based Ford Motor Company. Yet, the lack of consensus over managerial and marketing issues led to the termination of the partnership in the early 1970s. In 1976, HMC developed its first car, the Hyundai Pony, in 1976.

The Hyundai Pony as described by George Turnbull [Video by ThamesTV]

The Hyundai pony was developed with the support of the Mitsubishi Motor Company that sought to expand its market access beyond the shores of Japan. Hyundai was granted a technical licensing agreement, which enabled it to develop its very own nameplate cars.

Additionally, Chung roped in George Turnbull, who was formerly the president of the British Leland – an automotive company. Turnbull assumed the role as vice president of the HMC. In two years, Turnbull oversaw the development of the car production facilities in Ulsan.

By 1976, the new plant was completed and the first cars began rolling off the assembly line. Chung named the new model the Pony, a familiar name to many Koreans who were brought up on American Western movies. The Pony was a 1.2 liter rear-wheel-drive subcompact of modest quality. No market research had been done. Chung and his company had simply designed and built the car they thought the Korean people should have. President Park guaranteed the financing; Hyundai built it. It was Korea’s first national car.

An excerpt from “Made in Korea: Chung Ju Yung and the Rise of Hyundai” by Richard M. Steers.

From mid-1970s onwards, the HMC moved beyond the limited domestic market to the export markets. Alongside other similar automakers like Daewoo and Kia, the HMC increased export production in the 1980s. Hyundai Motors set up a production facility in 1985, which had an annual capacity of 300,000 units. By the mid-1980s, more than half of the total car production was exported, enabling the South Korean economy to benefit from continued current account surpluses by 1989.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– Assess the reasons for the rise of Hyundai from the 1970s to 1980s.

Join our JC History Tuition to learn more about chaebols and other factors relating to the Asian Tigers. The H2 and H1 History Tuition programmes feature online learning activities to consolidate your content awareness and improve answering skills. Attend our free writing practices to improve your time management and application techniques.

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JC History Tuition Bishan Bedok Tampines Singapore - How did South Korea become a developed nation - JC History Essay Skills

How did South Korea become a developed nation?

What are the Four Asian Tigers? 
To understand how South Korea become a developed nation, we must start off the discussion with the understanding of the ‘Four Asian Tigers‘. The ‘Four Asian Tigers’ refer to the fast-developing nations of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. These four Asian economies were identified as remarkable case studies, given their high levels of sustained economic growth from 1960s to 1990s. Due to their extensive focus on export-oriented industrialisation, these countries have caught up with developed countries and competed at the international markets

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan] 

In the following section, we will examine the contributing factors that can explain the economic transformation of South Korea.

1. Role of the Government
a. Target Setting and Planning
At the stage of economic development, the South Korean government undergone a process of central planning that involved target setting and resource management. Central planning was essential in the prioritisation of promising industries to nurture and expand, especially the family-owned chaebols. Institutionalisation of planning procedures took the form of the Economic Planning Board (EPB was established in 1961), which took the lead in formulating Five-Year Plans (FYP), which were important in charting the direction on a progressive basis. The EPB was accredited for the successful policy shift from import-substitution industrialisation (ISI) to export-oriented industrialisation, which propelled the South Korean economy significantly.

b. Policy Implementation
The strategies employed by the South Korean government have evolved over time. At the initial stage, the South Korean economy was built upon the foundations of domestic production. This strategy is known as ‘import-substitution industrialisation‘, which refers to the use of artificial trade barriers to insulate the domestic economy from foreign competition. The main purpose of ISI was to nurture local firms, such that they will develop and expand to become the key driver of the South Korean economy. In this case study, the government imposed trade protection to develop labour-intensive sectors that produce textile, agriculture and light consumer goods.

However, the South Korean government realised the economic gains of ISI were not sustainable as the above-mentioned goods yielded low-value economic growth. Hence, they turned their gaze towards foreign markets. This approach involved ‘export-oriented industrialisation‘. In contrast to ISI, EOI involved the production of exports (i.e. domestically-produced goods to be sold in the international markets) to promote economic development. In order for exports to be competitive, the South Korean government provided financial support to exporting firms, such as tariff exemptions on the import of raw materials for export production. Given that the foreign markets were much larger than the domestic market of South Korea, it was evident that the country enjoyed tremendous success, which was indicated by the increase in per capita income from $100 from 1963 to $6614 in 1990.

2. Role of the Private Businesses [i.e. Chaebols]
In addition to the notable contributions by the South Korean government, the economic transformation was made possible through the efforts of the private enterprises. In this case, the chaebols played a crucial role in the economic development of this Asian Tiger. Chaebols are family-dominated conglomerates that serve as the key pillars of support for the development of the South Korean economy. These major business corporations (e.g. Samsung and Hyundai) were formed in the 1960s under the auspices of the government, which provided extensive financial support and exclusion from stiff foreign competition. As such, these companies expanded and dominated the economy.

It was an economic success as the chaebols could compete in international markets against multinational corporations (MNCs) as they possessed large capital to innovate and improve the quality of exports. By 1980s, these major companies were self-sustaining and no longer needed government support to function. In return, these companies acted as the lifeline of the South Korean economy. For instance, Samsung occupied nearly one-fifth of South Korea’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), implying that a single chaebol could support nearly 20% of the entire nation’s economy.

However, the remarkable achievements of these chaebols were blemished by structural flaws that began to appear over time. The over-bearing influence of these major companies was observed in the monopolisation of markets, which crowded out small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The nearly-absent competition cultivated a culture of complacency, which resulted in the deterioration of product quality. Furthermore, the family-oriented structure of chaebols encouraged the top management to appoint family members, which translated to the growing inefficiencies of these corporations. As such, it was imperative for the government to intervene and address the dominance of chaebols.

3. Role of Culture
The ‘Miracle on the Han River’ can also be explained by the inherent characteristics of the South Koreans, particularly the cultural traits shaped by Confucianism. Similar to the Japanese, many look up to the South Koreans for their work ethics, as they are described as industrious and reliable. In economic terms, many firms benefited in terms of higher labour productivity levels, which contributed to increase in economic growth rates.

Additionally, the frugal mindsets of South Koreans were beneficially for economic developments as savings rate was high. This meant that many firms could take loans from banks to finance their investment activities, thus promoting economic growth.

4. International Developments
South Korea’s economic development can also be explained by the tremendous economic support provided by USA during the Cold War period. During and after the Korean War (1950 to 1953), USA supported Korea’s industrialisation policy as part of its strategy to stem the tide of Communism in Asia. For example, USA provided post-war financial aid to South Korea, in which the financial resources were important for public infrastructure projects, like road-building and airport construction. From 1950 to 1980, the estimates of American aid to South Korea amounted to nearly US$6 billion. Due to the efforts of the USAID (United States Agency for International Development), South Korea’s exports increased from US$4 million to over $150 billion in 1980. Therefore, it can be observed that USA played a significant role in the development of the Korean economy.

Points to Ponder
Now that you have covered the four major factors that could explain the economic transformation of South Korea, consider the following pointers to integrate your knowledge for essay writing application:
– Which role was more important in the economic transformation of South Korea: Government or Private Enterprises [explain why]
– “The role of USA was most crucial in achieving the economic miracle of South Korea.” Assess the validity of this statement. [to be discussed in class]

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