Tag Archive for: essay writing

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Philippines grow its economy - JC History Essay Notes

How did Philippines grow its economy?

About the Philippine economy
After the attainment of independence, the Philippines became one of the leading Southeast Asian economies that was comparable to neighbouring countries, like Malaysia and Singapore. The 1970s became the turning point due to internal economic mismanagement, thus contributing to political turmoil that ended with a switch to the new administration by the early 1990s.

Find out more about the modern economic development of the Philippines after independence.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1946 to 1965: Post-independent Philippines
During the early stages of independence, Philippines was heavily reliant on primary exports, due to its trade links with USA. This can be explained by the pre-indpendence policies, like the Payne Aldrich Tariff Act (1909) that granted US access to some Philippine goods.

One significant approach involved economic indigenization via the establishment of the National Development Company, which facilitated the formation of state agencies to control key sectors of the economy. For example, the Philippine Sugar Institute was formed in 1951.

The second strategy involved agricultural development. Given the heavy reliance on primary exports for growth, the government engaged in major land reforms, as seen by the Rice Share Tenancy Act (1946). The purpose was for resource consolidation and re-distribution.

1965 to 1986: The ‘era of Marcos’
Under the leadership of Ferdinand Marcos, the government continued its extensive state intervention to guide the development of the Philippine economy.

The government undergone transition for import-substitution industrialization (ISI) to export-oriented industrialization (EOI), as exemplified by policies that encouraged the inflow of foreign investment. For example, the Board of Investment was formed. This public entity then implemented the Investment Incentives Act (1967) to facilitate the influx of foreign investment. Additionally, the Export Incentives Act (1970) was introduced to provide incentives for the production of manufactured exports.

Following the imposition of martial law in 1972, the government raised its level of intervention in the economy. There was greater state ownership in various sectors, as seen by organizations like the Philippine Sugar Commission and the Asia Brewery.

Around the 1960s to 1970s, Marcos also capitalized on the Green Revolution to enhance the productivity of agriculture. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was set up to allow the development of high-yielding and disease-resistant rice varieties. In addition, the ‘Masagana 99’ (Rice Production Programme) was introduced to grant rice farmers access to fertilizer subsidies and credit. Hence, the farmers benefited from state support, as seen by the achievement of self-sufficiency in rice production by 1972.

1986 to 1997: Post-Marcos Era
Following the economic instability and political unrest that caused the transition to a new administration, the Philippine government sought to resolve these past setbacks urgently.

One such obstacle was the large external debt due to Marco’s extensive borrowing. Austerity measures were introduced to reduce deficits. Also, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law was passed in 1988 to facilitate land reforms, thereby transferring ownership to farmers.

Besides, there was greater privatization to reduce excessive state ownership, which was recognized as an inefficient approach for economic development. For example, monopolies in industries like telecommunications and power generation were dismantled.

Over time, the post-Marco period was met with greater success due to the restoration of economic stability. Privatization was effective in providing the country with its much-needed revenue for recovery. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in the 1990s averaged at 3.3%.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question to understand this country-specific case study:
– To what extent was state involvement beneficial to the economic development of the Philippines after independence? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have examined the strategies and outcomes of the Philippine economy, we encourage you to attempt essay questions to review your knowledge thoroughly. An alternative approach is to join our JC History Tuition. We provide useful summary notes and essay outlines to enhance your knowledge application skills.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as JC Math Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition, Social Studies Tuition, Geography, History Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English, Math and Science Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.

JC History Tuition Bishan Bedok Tampines Singapore - How to write a History essay

How to write an A Level History essay?

How to write a History Essay?
In general, essay writing involves the organization of arguments to support or challenge a given view in the question statement. In the context of A Level History essay writing, it is important to adopt an argumentative style of writing to convince your reader that your stand is sound and well-analyzed. However, it is insufficient to weave a continuous line of arguments and submit your script with the expectation that you have just aced the examination. In this article, we will examine some key considerations that will support your efforts to create a good essay.

1: Read the question carefully
The first step to do well for A Level History essay is to read the question. Some students are eager to skip the reading process and attempt the writing immediately, which can lead to fatal errors. It is imperative that you read the question and pick out the keywords. Pay attention to the command words, like “assess”. Also, identify the given view in the question statement to find out what is the opposing view, in order to take a clear stand in your introduction. During our JC History Tuition, we conduct class discussions to guide students through the reading process, by using example essay questions. Through proper reading and annotation setting, you will realise the importance of careful reading, such as the identification of possible arguments to support your essay writing.

2: Set your essay outline
Once you have analyzed the essay question, plan your essay outline. By deriving a rough guideline on how you can arrange your ideas in the essay, this approach minimizes the potential error in which you arrive at a stumbling block and you are unable to decide on the direction of your subsequent paragraphs. The outline should be written in five minutes or less. Focus your efforts on the listing of key arguments that support your stand and those that challenge it. Under each argument, you can list down examples that come to your mind. Now, you are ready to write.

3: Acknowledge the given view in the question
Similar to how individuals engage in intellectual debates, it is important that you acknowledge the view stated in the question. Failure to do so, you may risk being marked down for the ‘inability to answer the question’. To do this, you should explain how the given view answers the question.

Example Question: “The effectiveness of the United Nations (UN) peacekeeping efforts depended solely on the Security Council.” How far do you agree with this view in the period of 1945 to 1991?

With reference to the above example question, you should acknowledge and explain the given view of how the Security Council played a part in contributing to the successes of the United Nation peacekeeping efforts in the first paragraph of your ‘Main Body’.

4: Align the arguments to your stand
This alignment of argument depends on the direction stated in your stand (which should be stated in your ‘Introduction’. With reference to the above question, if your stand is that you disagree and argue that the effectiveness of the UN did not depend on the Security Council, but rather the General Assembly, then your second paragraph should provide an analysis of the limitations of the Security Council’s role.

Bear in mind that the analysis of factors in every essay question cannot be memorised and stored piecewise in your own revision notes. It is a misleading approach that limits your thinking ability. Instead, our JC History Tuition will feature numerous question practices to widen the scope of assessments, such that you will be familiar with the possible perspectives in a given topic.

What’s Next?
Practice makes perfect! I strongly encourage you to attempt more essays. Once you start, you will realise that this perceived sense of hesitation and reluctance can be overcome. Furthermore, your worries (Can I complete my essays on time? How do I remember so many examples?) will dissipate as you practice more often. I do not deny that writing can be a frictional process at the start. Do not give up. Your determination will bring you closer to your goal.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as JC Math Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition, Social Studies Tuition, Geography, History Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. For Primary Tuition, we have Primary English, Math and Science Tuition. Call 9658 5789 to find out more.