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JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - How did Singapore achieve rapid economic growth - JC History Essay Notes

How did Singapore achieve rapid economic growth?

Singapore: An Asian Tiger
Ever since Singapore achieved independence in August 1965, the government embarked on an ambitious goal of transforming the young nation into a bustling, modern country that has become the role model for others. From independence to 1997, Singapore has been recognised as one of the front runners in Southeast Asia. Today, Singapore is known for many things, including financial and tourism activities.

Examine the reasons for Singapore’s economic success.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 2: Economic Development after Independence
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 1: Paths to Economic Development

1959 to 1965: Merger & Separation – Singapore’s path to independence
Before Singapore began its rapid economic transformation, the British colonial rule played a crucial role in providing the infrastructure and systems to commence this phenomenal change. In particular, the British capitalized in the strategic location of Singapore in the Southeast Asia to develop it for entrepôt trade.

Additionally, migrants from other parts of Asia began to set foot in the ‘Little Red Dot’, thereby providing labour for manufacturing and services. However, the devastation of the World War Two can be observed, such as the destruction of public infrastructure.

On 5 October 1960, Albert Winsemius was invited by the United Nations Development Programme team to review the country’s ability to carry out industrialisation. Winsemius concluded in the report that high-tech industrialiastion was indeed important, as well as the promotion of foreign investment. As such, the government developed the Jurong Industrial Estate, marking the first step towards industrialization.

1965 to 1985: An outward-oriented approach
Following the sudden declaration of Separation, Singapore had to contend with its own small market, which lacked natural resources that other neighbouring countries possessed. Furthermore, the British declared its intent to withdraw by 1971, which meant that Singapore would have lost a major source of employment and economic growth.

In contrast to other Southeast Asian economies, Singapore began its export-oriented industrialisation (EOI) strategies much earlier. The purpose of EOI was to address the above-mentioned challenges, such as the reliance on trade and foreign investment to propel growth. For example, policy incentives were introduced, like the Economic Expansion Incentives Act (1967) that lowered taxation for specific industries.

Additionally, the government tapped on its only available resource – labour – to enhance its international competitiveness. Vocational training institutes were established to equip its citizens with the skills and knowledge to support the multinational corporations (MNCs). On 1 April 1979, the Vocational and Industrial Training Board (VITB) was formed to facilitate the training of workers in the ‘commercial, industrial and service sectors’.

The government’s efforts had paid off, as seen by the rapid economic growth and falling unemployment rates. EOI and the attraction of foreign investment have led to the influx of foreign companies, which contributed to job creation and higher industrial output.

1985 to 1997: Adaptation to changing economic conditions
However, there were setbacks that limited the extent of Singapore’s economic success. Notably, the Crisis Decades in the 1970s, led to an economic recession in 1985. By opening up the nation to trade, it became vulnerable to external shocks.

Nevertheless, effective adaptation has ensured that the Singapore economy remained resilient in the face of such challenges. For example, Singapore focused on a productivity-driven growth through the’wage shock therapy‘ from 1979 to 1981. The 1985 recession prompted the government to reduce Central Provident Fund (CPF) contribution rates to keep cost of production low. This response was critical as it helped to maintain employment at low and stable levels.

Finally, economic restructuring was carried out, in response to the Strategic Economy Plan (1991) by the Economic Planning Committee. Its purpose was to maintain the country’s international competitiveness through economic diversification. Therefore, heavy investment was made to develop the financial and tourism sectors.

Concluding remarks
In summary, the Singapore government’s consistent policymaking and responses to economic challenges have played a major role in realising the aims set by the ‘founding fathers’ of the young nation. As of 2017, Singapore’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is estimated at US$329.91 billion, demonstrating their successful efforts.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand this country-specific case study:
– How far do you agree that the promotion of foreign investment was the most important factor in explaining the economic transformation of Singapore after independence? [to be discussed in class]

In view of the Singapore case study, it is imperative that you apply your knowledge to practice questions. Sign up for the JC History Tuition and learn how to organise your answers and provide well-analysed arguments to ace the GCE A Level History examinations.

Additionally, you can join other JC tuition classes, like GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition to be ready for the GCE A Level examinations. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to register now!

JC History Tuition Bishan Singapore - What caused the Taiwan economic miracle - JC History Essay Notes

What caused the Taiwan economic miracle?

What is the Taiwanese economic miracle?
Taiwan’s phenomenal economic transformation has been examined thoroughly by academics. Some argue that the economic miracle was attributed to internal factors, particularly the role of the government in spearheading heavy industrialization. In contrast, others believe that Taiwan’s meteoric rise in international markets was due to international developments, such the role of the USA in providing loans and access to foreign technology. Generally, both perspectives are valid and indeed contributed to the economic development of Taiwan.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Understanding the Global Economy (1945-2000)
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme II Chapter 3: Rise of Asian Tigers from 1970s to 1990s [South Korea and Taiwan]

In the next section, we will examine the key contributing factors that led to the economic miracle of Taiwan, especially the government and private enterprises.

1. [Government] Import-substitution Industrialization
From the 1950s, the Taiwanese government engaged in import-substitution industrialization (ISI) to develop the manufacturing sector. Apart from the focus on restoring pre-war levels of production in the agricultural sector, the government insulated domestic firms from foreign competition, thereby enabling the production of textiles, plastics and plywood.

For example, in the textile industry, the government imposed tariffs and quotas on the imports of yarn. Additionally, the government improved access to credit, thus allowing firms to purchase capital. A limit of new entrants was imposed to prevent excessive competition from undermining the growth of local textile firms.

As a result, their efforts provided successful as Taiwan became a major textile exporter in the 1950s. The export of textiles increased twofold in the same time period. In fact, Taiwan was so successful that USA engaged in protectionism in 1961.

2. [Government] Export-oriented Industrialization
Over time, the government recognized the economic potential of export-led growth and pursued an outward strategy. This was known as export-oriented industrialization (EOI), which aligned with the trend of economic liberalization.

One of the many areas of focus was the provision of incentives to encourage export promotion. For example, a concessional export credit scheme was introduced. Also, the government devalued the exchange rate to raise export competitiveness.

Besides, the government pursued an indirect approach by nurturing the growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Taiwan. By having a sizable pool of SMEs, the government can benefit from an additional dimension of trade-led growth. For instance, the SME Development Fund was set up to grant financial assistance to the private enterprises. Firms were also granted access to foreign technology and manpower training.

As a result, SMEs dominated the domestic markets. In contrast to South Korea, in which the chaebols (large family-dominated conglomerates) occupied major shares of the economy, Taiwan was backed by numerous SMEs. By 1994, nearly 98% of Taiwan’s manufacturers were SMEs. Furthermore, SMEs were key producers that provided nearly half of the total production in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

3. [Private Enterprises] Greater emphasis on export promotion
Eventually, as SMEs grew and expanded in size, the government continued to play a vital role in supporting these private enterprises that became internationally competitive. Although many industrialized countries like Taiwan and South Korea were hit by the Crisis Decades, the SMES were able to endure these external shocks through continual state support.

For instance, the oil shocks in the 1970s eroded export competitiveness for Taiwanese manufacturers. In response, the government formulated a new plan in the mid-1970s to engage in economic restructuring. As such, Taiwan ventured into quality-driven exports, such as petrochemicals and electronics.

The government oversaw the transition from a labour-intensive to capital-intensive production by establishing the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) in 1973. The ITRI specialised in R&D. In 1987, the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) was formed as a result of ITRI.

4. [USA] External support to enhance capital-intensive production
The private enterprises were also supported by the USA, which capitalized on the low-cost base and pro-liberalization policies of the government to set up firms in Taiwan. The entry of American MNCs (e.g. Taiwan) proved beneficial for Taiwan as it led to the influx of foreign direct investment (major source of growth) and foreign technology (raised quality of production).

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following question to understand this issue:
– How far do you agree that the economic transformation of Taiwan was the result of government intervention? [to be discussed in class]

After you have examined this case study to understand the importance of the above-mentioned factors in contributing to the growth of the Taiwanese economy from the 1970s to the 1990s, you should apply your knowledge to the essay questions. It is important that you review your learning through an application-oriented approach. You can consider joining our JC History Tuition and learn how to condense your content revision in a more productive way, such that you can answer both essay and source-based case study questions effectively.

Furthermore, you can join other JC tuition classes, such as GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to learn more.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - What happened in East Timor - United Nations

What happened in East Timor?

Overview
The 1999 East Timorese crisis broke out due to resistance by Indonesian militants that protested against the independence movement. Following a period of armed confrontation, the United Nations intervened and deployed a peacekeeping force to restore peace and oversee the conduct of elections in East Timor.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

In the following section, we will analyze the roles of Indonesia and East Timor to measure the political effectiveness of the United Nations (UN) in the post-Cold War period.

1. [Indonesia] Prelude to the crisis: Indonesian invasion of East Timor
In 1974, Portuguese Timor (later named East Timor) was granted independence by Portugal. However, a civil war broke out within East Timor as there were differing opinions over the inclusion of East Timor as part of Indonesia. The FRETILIN (Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor supported independence, whereas the UDT (Timorese Democratic Union) pushed for annexation.

This civil war escalated into an inter-state conflict when the Fretilin declared East Timor independent on 28 Nov 1975. In Dec 1975, Indonesia launched ‘Operation Lotus’ (i.e. Operasi Seroja), which a massive military operation that involved both naval and aerial invasions.

As a result of the Indonesian invasion, many East Timorese people were killed.

2. [United Nations] International actions: Limited response
Following the invasion, the UN General Assembly condemned the invasion and demanded the immediate withdrawal of Indonesian troops from East Timor. Likewise, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 384, which reminded Indonesia to respect the right to self-determination.

Even so, the UN response proved to be insignificant, thus allowing Indonesia to control East Timor forcefully from 1975 to 1999.

3. [United Nations] Changing political situation
In 1998, following the Asian Financial Crisis, the Indonesian government changed its position and offered to grant East Timor greater political autonomy. Notably, the government stopped short of declaring East Timor independent.

The UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan proposed to the incoming Indonesian President Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie to conduct a referendum for East Timor.

4. [East Timor] A turning point: The referendum
In Jun 1999, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1249, which led to the deployment of the UNAMET (UN Mission in East Timor). The purpose of UNAMET is to oversee the proceedings of the referendum. As expected, the referendum reflected a resounding ‘yes’ to the push for independence.

Unfortunately, some Indonesian militants rejected the results and engaged in armed confrontation against the East Timorese people after the referendum. The brutal attacks led to the destruction of public facilities and significant casualties, resulting in the departure of affected victims to flee from their homes.

5. [United Nations] Swift international responses
As a result, the international scene responded with widespread outrage and US President Bill Clinton threatened to withdraw the economic aid (i.e. IMF loans) that Indonesia depended on to recover from the aftermath of the Asian Financial Crisis.

Additionally, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1264, which called for the deployment of the Australian-led peacekeeping force, known as the INTERFET (International Force East Timor). Gradually the INTERFET succeeded in ending the violence.

Next, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1272, which established the UNTAET (UN Transitional Administration in East Timor). Primarily, the UNTAET took charge of managing the administration in East Timor, thus ensuring a smooth and stable transition to independence.

What was the outcome?
Indonesia finally recognised East Timor, thereby leading to East Timor’s attainment of independence on 20 Mar 2002.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand the case study:
– What are the determining factors that affect the political effectiveness of the United Nations peacekeeping operations in the post-Cold War period?
– In view of the changing nature of UN operations after the Cold War, was the United Nations more successful in this new era? [to be discussed in class]

After examining this case study, you can apply this knowledge to A Level History essay questions to review your level of comprehension. Additionally, you can join our JC History Tuition to receive useful summary notes and practice questions to enhance your revision efforts productively.

Besides, you can join other related JC tuition progrmames, such as GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Under the guidance of experienced and engaging JC and Secondary tutors, rest assured that you are in good hands.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - What happened in the Persian Gulf War - United Nations

What happened in the Persian Gulf War?

Entering the post-Cold War phase
In Aug 1990, the Gulf War broke out due to the Iraqi invasion in Kuwait due to economic disputes. In response, the US-led coalition force conducted ‘Operation Desert Storm’ from Jan to Feb 1991. In general, the United Nations (UN) benefited from the resolute American support, resulting in a swift and decisive victory that ended with the liberation of Kuwait.

Find out what happened during the Persian Gulf War to understand the role of the USA and the UN.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]:
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

In the section below, we will find out more about the historical developments of the Persian Gulf War by focusing on the specific roles of Iraq, USA and the United Nations.

1. [Iraq] Growing discontent over economic matters
Before Iraq began its invasion of Kuwait, it is important to consider the contributing factors that led to that fateful day. There are two main factors – economic problems and political motivations

First, following the Iran Hostage Crisis of 1979, the Iran-Iraq War began (1980-1988), which resulted in the decline of oil prices. Given that Iraq’s economic progress was heavily reliant on oil, the fall in oil prices affected its national income. Additionally, Iraq accused Kuwait of producing oil beyond the quota set by OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries). Iraq blamed Kuwait for the slump in oil prices that harmed its economy.

Second, Iraq has been challenging Kuwait’s sovereignty, given the latter’s strategic location in the northern part of the Persian Gulf. Iraq perceived Kuwait is situated in a region that yields tremendous economic potential.

As such, after an exchange of threats between the two nations, Iraq commenced its invasion of Kuwait, which took place on 2 Aug 1990.

2. [United Nations] Sanctions and condemnations
In response to the illegal occupation of Kuwait, the United Nations (UN) Security Council passed a series of resolutions that condemned the invasion and demanded the immediate withdrawal of Iraqi troops: Resolution 660, Resolution 661, Resolution 664 and Resolution 665.

Similarly, the UN General Assembly had a resounding ‘yes’ to the condemnation of the invasion. The UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar used diplomatic means to seek a peaceful resolution with the Iraqi leaders and avoid the escalation of conflict.

Yet, Iraq ignored the repeated calls for withdrawal. Therefore, the UN Security Council applied the principles of ‘collective security’. In Nov 1990, the Resolution 678 was adopted, which authorized the use of force to enforce compliance.

3. [USA] Operation Desert Storm: A unified response
This time, the USA backed the UN by leading a coalition force that comprised of 34 member states to enforce the Resolution and free Kuwait. The US-led forces conducted both aerial and ground operations that led to a swift victory against the Iraqi army. Clearly, the overwhelming military might of the United Nations resulted in the eventual departure of the Iraqi forces.

What was the outcome?
After the Iraqi troops had left Kuwait, the UN passed Resolution 687 that led to the deployment of the UNIKOM (United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission) and the UNSCOM (United Nations Special Commission). The UNIKOM focused on patrolling the Iraq-Kuwait border, whereas the UNSCOM oversaw the destruction of nuclear facilities and missiles in Iraq.

However, both UN forces faced obstacles that hindered their operations. The UNIKOM lacked military strength to prevent the entry of unauthorised personnel into the demilitarized zone. Similarly, the UNSCOM had to deal with an uncooperative Iraq. Eventually, the UNSCOM was replaced by the UNMOVIC (United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission) in 1999.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand the case study:
– Was the USA more of a help or hindrance to the United Nations?
– How far do you agree that the operational constraints was the most significant factor that affected the successes of UN operations in the post-Cold War period? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have reviewed this case study, we would like to share with you other relevant JC tuition classes that you can sign up for, such as the GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Under the guidance of experienced and engaging JC and Secondary tutors, rest assured that you are in good hands.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - What happened in the Kosovo War - United Nations

What happened in the Kosovo War?

What happened in Kosovo?
Between 1996 and 1999, an armed conflict broke out between the Serbian and Yugoslav forces due to the desire of the Kosovars to secede from Yugoslavia. The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which led the controversial bombing campaign that affected the UN efforts in conflict resolution. In general, after a series of violent confrontation, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević accepted mediation (Kumanovo Treaty) and allowed United Nations (UN) to provide humanitarian relief to the affected people. In 2008, Kosovo declared independence.

Find out what happened in the past before Kosovo became an independent nation in the 21st century.

Topic of Study [For H1/H2 History Students]:
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

In the following parts, we will examine the developments of the conflict to understand the role of the UN. It is important to identify and analyze the contributing factors affecting the Kosovo War to comprehend the limitations of the UN.

1. [Kosovo] Ethnic tensions in Kosovo
Following the death of Josip Broz Tito, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) experienced an outbreak of political and economic instability. In 1992, four out of six republics declared independence, whereas Serbia and Montenegro remained as part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). The FRY was led by President Slobodan Milošević.

Within Kosovo, the population comprised of an ethnic Albanian majority and Serb minority. In contrast, the FRY was governed by the Serbians. As such, the Serbian government was against the Albanian Kosovars’ idea of secession due to the political problems of separatist movements.

In 1995, the Albanian Kosovars formed the KLA, which used guerilla tactics to attack the Serbian minority in Kosovo, marking the start of the Kosovo War. The conflict escalated during the Račak massacre, in which 45 Albanians were killed by Serbian security troops in Jan 1999.

As a result, this humanitarian crisis prompted NATO to consider the use of force against the FRY, thus causing the conflict to include regional organizations.

2. [United Nations/NATO] International condemnation and intervention
In Mar 1998, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1160, which imposed an arms embargo on the FRY and disallowed governments from arming the KLA. Although the NATO initiated Operation ‘Determined Falcon’ as a warning to the Serbian government over its aggression, the latter refused to back down.

In view of the continued hostilities between the Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1199, which demanded the cessation of Serb aggression against the KLA and the end of KLA’s secession.

3. [NATO] Desperate times; Desperate measures
NATO sought to resolve them conflict on their terms as seen by the ‘Rambouillet Accords’, which the regional organization had drafted. The Accord was a peace agreement between the FRY and the Albanian majority in Kosovo. It pushed for NATO’s administration in Kosovo as well as the deployment of NATO peacekeeping forces.

However, the Serbian government of FRY rejected the Agreement as they perceived the Accord would have enabled NATO to have full access into the whole Yugoslavia. Hence, the breakdown of the peace negotiations led to the start of the disastrous NATO bombing campaign in Mar 1999 that lasted for 78 days.

Unexpectedly, NATO began the aerial bombardments against the FRY without the UN Security Council’s authorization, claiming that the use of force was necessary to resolve the humanitarian problem. Furthermore, the bombing campaign worsened the crisis as thousands of Albanians were forced to evacuate their homes and flee to neighbouring countries.

3. [United Nations] Conflict resolution
As conflict resolution seemed like a forgone conclusion, even with the bombing campaign, NATO declared its intent to conduct a ground invasion. This was motivated by the persistence of the Serbians to escalate the conflict by conducting an ‘ethnic cleansing’ campaign against the Albanians.

Eventually, Milošević backed down, partially due to the Russian-Finnish mediation. In Jun 1999, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1244, which led to the deployment of the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Additionally, the Kosovo Force (KFOR) supported the UN with its 45,000-strong NATO peacekeeping troops. On 9 Jun 1999, the Kumanovo Treaty was signed between Yugoslavia and Serbia, signalling the end of hostilities and the withdrawal of the FRY security forces.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to comprehend the case study:
– Was NATO more of a help or hindrance to the UN peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo?
– How far do you agree that the Security Council played the most important role in determining the successes of the UN peacekeeping efforts? [to be discussed in class]

In addition to the History case studies found in this website, we also offer other JC tuition classes that you can join, such as the GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Get started in this exciting learning experience as we teach you how to think critically and write convincingly.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - What happened during the Rwandan Genocide - United Nations

What happened during the Rwandan Genocide?

What happened in Rwanda?
In April 1994, a civil war broke out in Rwanda (located in Central and East Africa), in which the Hutus engaged in the mass slaughter of the Tutsis. Within a span of 100 days, the number of Rwandans killed was estimated to be at 800,000. In general, the United Nations operation in Rwanda was perceived to be a failure as it could not prevent the genocide from taking place.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

In the next part below, we will examine the key roles to understand the developments in Rwanda as well as the role of the United Nations.

1. [Belgium] A brewing conflict in Rwanda
In the past, Rwanda was under Belgian colonial rule. The Belgians granted the Tutsi aristocratic minority power, which in turn positioned the Hutu majority as a seemingly-lower social class. As such, the growing class division led to rising ethnic tensions between the two groups.

In 1961, Belgium granted the Rwandan colony independence, followed by the outbreak of ethnic violence between the Hutus and Tutsis. The Hutus gained political power, as seen by the ascension of the Hutu president, Juvénal Habyarimana (1973-1994). On the other hand, the exiled Tutsis formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) to demand political concessions from the Habyarimana administration, particularly the ‘second-class’ status.

Contrary to the Tutsis’ expectations, the Hutus perceived them as serious threats to social and political stability. Thus, the Rwandan Civil War began. On 2 Oct 1990, the RPF engaged in a war against the government. Although both parties were willing to hold a ceasefire, as seen by the signing of the Arusha Accords in Aug 1993, the peace was short-lived.

2. [United Nations] Humanitarian Responses
In Jun 1993, the UN deployed the UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR), which cooperated with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The UNOMUR’s aim was the oversee the implementation of the 1993 Arusha Accords.

More importantly, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 872 on 5 Oct 1993. The UN Assistance Mission Rwanda (UNAMIR) was deployed. The UNAMIR’s mandate included the monitoring of the Arusha Accords, demobilization of aggressors, overseeing elections and the providing humanitarian aid to the displaced refugees in Rwanda.

Unfortunately, the UN was hampered by the lack of troops (partially due to the Somalia incident). Notably, the UN took five months to organise its troops and form the authorised strength.

3. [Hutu Government] The Genocide begins
In 1994, the Habyarimana government ignored the UN’s efforts and conducted the mass slaughter of Tutsis. The Hutus stood by the justification that the killings were to prevent the enslavement of the Hutu people as the Tutsi aristocrats may resurface if left unchecked.

To make matters worse, the Hutus blamed the Tutsis for the death of Habyarimana on 7 Apr 1994. Although an interim government was formed, it failed to stem the tide of the massacre. Additionally, the RPF (Tutsis) continued to challenge the government, worsening the refugee problem.

4. [United Nations] Last ditch attempts
In view of this complex conflict, the UNAMIR was unable to facilitate a ceasefire. Growing frustrated by the lack of progress and the threatened UN troops, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 912, which diminished the size of the UNAMIR from 2548 to 270.

Finally, the UN Security Council tried to salvage the situation by passing Resolution 929, which led to the start of ‘Operation Turquoise’. It was a multinational operation led by France to provide humanitarian protection for the refugees in Rwanda. Again, the UN was too slow in its response.

What was the outcome?
By Oct 1994, nearly 1 million people were killed. Also, 2 million people were displaced from their homes. Eventually, the killings ceased only when the RPF took over Rwanda and formed a new government.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand the case study better:
– What are the obstacles that hindered the UNAMIR?
– How far do you agree that the lack of political will was the main reason for the failure of the UN operations in Rwanda? [to be discussed in class]

After you have learnt the post-Cold War UN case studies, we would like to share with you more about our JC tuition programmes that you can join, such as the GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. We teach you how to approach these subjects in exam-friendly methods, such that you will develop the critical thinking and problem-solving skills to ace the GCE A Level examinations.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - How did the Somali civil war start - United Nations

How did the Somali civil war start?

What happened in Somalia?
In the 1980s, a civil war broke out in Somalia, which is located close to the ‘Horn of Africa’ (next to Ethiopia and Kenya). The internal conflict arose due to the resistance against the dictator – Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre. In 1991, armed opposition overthrew the Barre government, leaving behind a power vacuum, such that political infighting ensued. Generally, even with the intervention of the United Nations, Somalia was embroiled in a longstanding conflict. Following the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993, the UN lost its confidence and withdrew in 1995.

Topic of Study [For H1/H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security

In the next section, we will learn more about the respective roles that can explain the developments of the Somali civil war, particularly the involvement of the United Nations.

1. [Somalia] A vague semblance of order
Following the collapse of the Barre government, Somalia entered a state of anarchy as multiple military factions began to engage in violent confrontations. The Somali National Movement (SNM) occupied the northern parts (later known as Somaliland), whereas the United Somali Congress (USC) controlled both the capital of Mogadishu and the southern regions.

However, as the capital represented the seat of power, armed factions led by the USC leaders, Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed, fought aggressively. Then, Ali Mahdi Mohammed was recognised as the President of Somalia, even though his political influence was limited to the capital. In 1992, a ceasefire was called between the two leaders.

2. [United Nations] Humanitarian responses
In view of the humanitarian crisis in Somalia, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) passed Resolution 733 (23 Jan 1992) and Resolution 746 (17 Mar 1992). The purpose of these Resolutions was to assist Somalia in the restoration of peace through the provision of humanitarian support. To facilitate this process, the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was formed. Unfortunately, the severity of internal political instability due to the military infighting between warlords hampered the UNOSOM I’s humanitarian relief efforts.

To address this setback, the UNSC passed Resolution 794 (3 Dec 1992) to authorise the deployment of the United Task Force (UNITAF). The UNITAF’s role was to facilitate the creation of a stable and secure environment for ‘humanitarian relief operations’. Notably, the UNITAF was granted SC authorization to use force and ensure that there was minimal obstruction by the local warlords in Somalia. In 1993, the UNOSOM II was deployed to sustain the provision of humanitarian support.

3. [USA] A fatal error: The Battle of Mogadishu
In Aug 1993, the US deployed a Joint Special Operations force, known as the Task Force Ranger, with the aim of capture two of General Mohammed Farah Aidid’s lieutenants. It was part of Operation ‘Gothic Serpent’, which had the main aim of seizing Farah Aidid in the capital Mogadishu.

In Oct 1993, the operation met a major setback as two US ‘Black Hawk’ helicopters were shot down by the local aggressors. All the survivors except one (Michael Durant) were killed by the Somalis at the crash site.

The failed operation had greater political implications on both the US and UN. US President Bill Clinton changed the foreign policy stance and withdrew US forces from Somalia. Similarly, other UN member states followed suit, such as Italy, Belgium, Sweden and France.

What was the outcome?
In conclusion, the UNSC issued Resolution 954 (4 Nov 1994) and called on the UN to withdraw all its forces from Somalia. Eventually, all the UN soldiers left the ‘failed state’ on 3 Mar 1995.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand the case study better:
– Was the UN successful in providing humanitarian aid in this conflict?
– What were the determining factors to evaluate the successes and limitations of the UN operations in Somalia? [to be discussed in class]

Now that you have examined the UN’s role in the post-Cold War period, we would like to introduce other JC tuition classes that you can sign up, namely the GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. These lessons will be useful in providing you with the resources and practices to be ready for the rigours of the GCE A Level examinations.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - What happened in the South Lebanon conflict - United Nations

What happened in the South Lebanon conflict?

What happened in South Lebanon?
This conflict is part of a protracted Arab-Israeli conflict, which we have examined in two earlier articles, namely the Palestinian War (1948) and the Suez Canal Crisis (1956). Following the Six-Day War (1967) and the Yom-Kippur War (1973), the Palestinian conflict began in South Lebanon (1978 and 1982). In general, it is an Israeli-Lebanese conflict that broke out due to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Eventually, after a series of failed attempts, the Palestinian forces withdrew from Lebanon in 1989 and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) left in 2000.

Topic of Study [For H1/H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security 

In the following section, we will find out what happened in South Lebanon and understand the roles of the involved parties, namely, Palestinians, Lebanon, Israel and the United Nations.

1. [Palestinians] Flight of the refugees
Ever since the creation of Israel in 1948, the Arab-Israeli conflict resulted in the mass exodus of Palestinians. Many Palestinians fled to Lebanon, which was recognised as one of the more wealthy nations as compared to the Arab countries. By mid-1970s, nearly one-fifth of the population in South Lebanon (including Beirut) comprised of Palestinians.

The problem began with the existence of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO), which was formed in 1964 to achieve the ‘liberation of Palestine) via violent and armed means, particularly directed towards the Israelis. In this case, the refugees based in South Lebanon sided with the PLO.

On 11 Mar 1978, the Coastal Road massacre took place, in which the PLO faction (Fatah) hijacked a bus and killed 38 Israeli civilians. The PLO had planned to use the hostages to demand the release of Palestinian prisoners.

2. [Israel] Swift military retaliation
In response to the terrorist attack, Israel began ‘Operation Litani’ three days later. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) conducted the invasion of South Lebanon via the Litani River. Within a week, Israel forces occupied the southern part. As the operation involved land, air and naval bombardment, many Lebanese and Palestinian refugees were displaced. Subsequently, the Lebanese Government requested help from the United Nations.

3. [United Nations] Futile attempts to call for ceasefire and conflict resolution
Then, the Security Council passed Resolution 425 and Resolution 426, which demanded the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon. To enforce this mandate, the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was established.

However, non-cooperation by the IDF and PLO proved problematic for the UN. For instance, the PLO argued that the Resolution was not applicable due to its lack of specification in requesting the withdrawal of the PLO. Although Israel eventually handed over their position to the South Lebanon Army (SLA) in Jun 1978, the SLA attacked the UNIFL headquarters. Similarly, the Palestinian factions attacked the UNIFIL, thus hindering the area of operations.

On 6 Jun 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon again. This time, it was known as the ‘Operation Peace for Galilee’. The main aim of the Operation was to force the departure of the PLO from South Lebanon. As the IDF expelled the PLO, the SLA (led by Saad Haddad) restricted the movement of the UNIFIL. Unfortunately, the UN thus limited to humanitarian assistance, rather than peacekeeping.

4. [USA] Alternative solutions
As conflict resolution appeared unlikely, other countries sought alternative methods. In Aug 1982, the US led the creation of a ‘Multinational Force’ (MNF) in Lebanon that also involved France, UK and Italy to oversee the withdrawal of PLO forces from Lebanon.

However, the MNF was unable to prevent the outbreak of hostilities. In fact, the MNF was also attacked, as seen by the bombing at the Beirut barracks in Oct 1983 that caused the deaths of nearly 300 peacekeepers. Frustrated by the failures, the MNF withdrew as well.

What was the outcome?
In conclusion, the UN operation in South Lebanon was a failure due to the non-compliance of local military factions (IDF, SLA and PLO). The Lebanese Civil War later ended in 1990, in which Syria occupied Lebanon. Both Palestinians and the Israelis withdrew from Lebanon in 1989 and 2000 respectively.

What can we learn from this case study?
Consider the following questions to understand the case study better:
– Which were more significant obstacles to the UN: Local parties or operational constraints?  
– How far do you agree that inaction of the Security Council was the main reason for the failures of the peacekeeping operation in the Lebanon conflict? [to be discussed in class]

After examining the Lebanon conflict, we would like to suggest other related JC tuition classes that you can consider, such as the Economics Tuition and GP Tuition, which are undoubtedly helpful in your preparation for the GCE A Level examinations. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. We teach you to think critically, discuss expressively, and write persuasively.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - Why did the Iran Hostage Crisis take place - United Nations ICJ

Why did the Iran Hostage Crisis happen?

On 29 Nov 1979, the US submitted a case to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) due to the sudden hostage incident in Iran, which affected its embassy personnel. The US held the premise that the Iran hostage incident was a clear violation of international law. Eventually, the ICJ’s ruling was only accepted by Iran after a series of unilateral enforcement actions undertaken by the US. It was a controversial incident that lasted for 444 days that was eventually resolved, but gave rise to other problems, such as the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War (Sep 1980 – Aug 1988) as well as the deterioration of bilateral relations between the US and Iran.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security – International Court of Justice: ensuring adherence to international law; arbitration and advisory opinion

In the next section, we will find out what happened during the Iran Hostage Crisis and the role of ICJ in resolving this tense conflict. This case study is essential in helping students to understand the supporting role of USA in ensuring the adherence to the international law.

1. [Iran] The hostage incident
On 4 Nov 1979, a group of radical Iranian college students took over the US Embassy complex in Tehran and held its occupants hostage. These students were part of the “Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line”, which supported the Iranian Revolution.

Generally, the Iranian Revolution began with the mass public demonstrations against the last Shah of Iran – Mohammaed Reza Pahlavi. Under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini, the Revolution overthrew the American-backed monarchy. The ‘hostage incident’ was part of Iran’s protest against US and to demand the return of the deposed Shah Pahlavi.

2. [ICJ] The United Nations’ response
In response, the US submitted the case to the ICJ. On 24 May 1980, ICJ concluded that Iran had violated international law. Then, the ICJ requested the Iranian Government to ensure the immediate release of the hostages and make reparations to the US. However, Iran ignored the Court’s ruling, reflecting the absence of enforcement.

3. [USA] American response: Escape, sanctions and negotiations
Although the ICJ failed to make progress, the US attempted to resolve the crisis through other means. One such method was a joint covert rescue that was carried out by the Canadian government and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 6 American diplomats who evaded capture on 4 Nov were successful in leaving Iran by air flight.

The second approach was more aggressive in nature as the US imposed economic sanctions on Iran, freezing $12 billion of assets and banning Iranian oil imports.

The third approach involved negotiations between the two governments from 1980 to 1981.

4. Outcome: Conflict resolution
In short, the Algiers Declaration (or ‘Algiers Accords’) was signed between US and Iran on 19 Jan 1981, in which involved the unfreezing of $7.9 million Iranian assets in exchange for the immediate release of the hostages. To facilitate the release based on the mutually-agreed terms, the Algiers Declaration formed the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal.

The Iran Hostage Crisis ended on 20 Jan 1981, signalling a significant decline in the diplomatic relations between Iran and US. Several months back, in Sep 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, marking the start of the Iran-Iraq War.

What can we learn from this case study?
Use the following questions to assess your understanding of this case:
– Did the ICJ play a critical role in the management of this conflict?
– How far do you agree that the lack of enforcement was the primary reason for the limited effectiveness of the ICJ in ensuring adherence to the international law?

Now that you have examined this ICJ case study, you can apply your knowledge to answer UN-related essay questions in preparation for the GCE A Level History examinations. Also, you can consider joining the Economics Tuition and GP Tuition, which are useful in building up your thinking and writing techniques. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition.

JC History Tuition Notes Bukit Timah Bishan Bedok Singapore - What happened in the Nicaragua case - United Nations ICJ 2

What happened in the Nicaragua case?

On 9 April 1984, the Nicaraguan government submit a case to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) with regards to the alleged illegal military and paramilitary activities conducted by the United States of America (USA). The premise was that USA had supported the Contra rebels and sought to destabilize the Sandinista government, which was interpreted as a violation of international law. The case was controversial as it involved a superpower that held considerable political influence. In summary, while the ICJ had ruled in favour of Nicaragua, USA ignored the Court’s ruling and refused to pay compensation, reflecting the limited effectiveness of the judicial organ of the UN.

Topic of Study [For H2 History Students]: 
Paper 1: Safeguarding International Peace and Security 
Section B: Essay Writing
Theme III Chapter 2: Political Effectiveness of the UN in maintaining international peace and security – International Court of Justice: ensuring adherence to international law; arbitration and advisory opinion

In the following section, we will focus on the background of the case and how the ICJ performed its arbitration role to resolve the dispute. This case study is useful for students in comprehending the political effectiveness of the Court in maintaining adherence to the international law.

1. [USA] External involvement in Nicaragua
In fact, USA had military involvement in Nicaragua since 1909. Under the leadership of US President William Taft, USA sought to overthrow the Nicaraguan government. Fast forward to the 1980s, Ronald Reagan was in support a rebel group, known as the Contras. At that time, the Contras shared the common aim of toppling the Sandinista government.

Therefore, USA provided both financial and military assistance to the Contras. As such, Nicaragua was attacked, as seen by the incursions at the ports, oil installations and a naval base.

2. [Nicaragua] Threats to national security
Facing significant threats to its national security, the Nicaraguan government lodged a formal complaint to the ICJ due to the perceived breach of its sovereign rights. Through the ICJ, Nicaragua hoped that the USA would pay reparations for the damages.

However, USA refused to accept ICJ’s jurisdiction and chose not to participate in the proceedings. It claimed that the military actions undertaken in Nicaragua were to defend its allies, such as El Salvador, due to the alleged aggression inflicted upon by Nicaragua.

3. [ICJ] Outcome: The Court’s response
On 27 June 1986, the Court concluded that USA had violated the customary international law as it supported rebel forces that sought to destabilize the Nicaraguan government. As such, ICJ stated that USA was obligated to compensate Nicaragua for the breaches of international law that led to significant damages.

Yet, on 28 October 1986, USA invoked the veto when the Security Council sought to pass a resolution that called for immediate compliance with the Court’s ruling. Although the UN General Assembly succeeded in passing a non-binding resolution in the next month, the US refused to make reparation to Nicaragua. In March 1988, the USA maintained its position to not participate in the case. Eventually, Nicaragua relented as seen by its declaration to the Court in September 1991 to discontinue the proceedings.

What can we learn from this case study?
Use the following questions to assess your understanding of this case:
– Did ICJ manage to perform its arbitration role effectively?
– What are the critical factors that determined the effectiveness of ICJ in ensuring member states adhere to the international law?

In preparation for the GCE A Level examinations, it may seem like a daunting task, given the complexity of questions and broad coverage of content. As such, you can consider joining our complementary classes, such as the Economics Tuition and GP Tuition. These JC tuition programmes will be instrumental in developing your thinking and writing skills to become more competent and ready for the assessments. For Secondary Tuition classes, we offer Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition.